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Questão 37 1290039CUSC 2020
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The fantastic appeal of fantasy
The fantasy genre starts where science ends
Few things can brighten up a dark morning in a Scottish seaside resort during an Atlantic storm. Yet while sheltering in a bookshop from the rain, I had a moment of sunny revelation. Stacked almost as high as my 11-year-old self were copies of The Lord of the Rings, with a cover illustration that promised mystery and magic. That chance discovery started a lifelong love of the fantasy genre1, both as reader and writer.
The fantasy genre has had more and more success, but today we’re in the middle of an unprecedented fantasy boom. Sales continue to rise and it is now the biggest genre in publishing. The more rational the world gets, with super-science all around us, the more we demand the irrational in our fiction.
Fantasy is not simply a case of swords2 and sorcery3. Yes, there is that by the shelf. But the genre is as broad as the imagination. The genre starts where science ends.
“In these modern times, where most of us sit at computers, fantasy books offer a chance to break out of mundane moments,” says Mark Newton, an editor with the genre. “People like to explore themes that go beyond the limited palette that literary fiction claims to offer.”
A search for the origins of fantasy will usually have academics muttering about Beowulf or Homer’s The Iliad, but they come from a time when all stories were fantasy: gods and monsters and supernatural artefacts with humanity caught in the middle. The first modern fantasy writer is usually considered to be William Morris, in the late 19th Century. But it was the early 20th Century where fantasy really started to gain status.
Fantasy fiction has always been about visionary ideas. You can get artful words in plenty of literary fiction, but being able to see beyond the boundaries4 of the world around us — now that’s a special skill.
I don’t write fantasy fiction simply to provide a trapdoor5 from the real world. For me, the genre is about the reality. But instead of coming up against it, fantasy maps the unconscious aspirations of our modern society through allegory in story- -forms as old as humanity. It’s about turning off the mobile phone and the computer and remembering who we are in the deepest parts of ourselves.
(Mark Chadbourn. www.telegraph.co.uk, 12.04.2008. Adaptado.)
1genre: gênero. Categoria distintiva de composição literária, como romance, poesia etc.
In the excerpt “that’s a special skill” (6th paragraph), the underlined word can be replaced, without changing the meaning of the sentence, by
Questão 18 1347391FMP 2020
Snakebites: Like having my hand smashed by a hammer
David Williams has been bitten by a snake six
times. “The first time was pretty terrifying because I
didn’t know what to expect. It felt like having my hand
smashed with a hammer,” he says. “My last snakebite
 would have been a fatal one, but for the fact we were
carrying an emergency medical kit so we could do
something about it.”
Dr Williams, an expert on snakebites at the
World Health Organization (WHO) — who travels the
 world collecting snake venoms to help develop new
treatments - says most victims “don’t have that lifesaving luxury”.
The WHO calls snakebites “arguably the world’s
biggest hidden health crisis”, with one person
 dying from a bite every four minutes. Hundreds of
thousands of others are left seriously disfigured, with
many needing amputations. Snakebites mainly affect
people living in some of the poorest communities in
the poorest parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
 Farmers risk their lives and livelihoods every day
while simply tending to their crops, where deadly
snakes lurk. Children often become victims too.
So now two major health organisations — the
WHO and the UK’s Wellcome Trust — are taking
 steps to tackle snakebites. The Wellcome Trust is
investing £80m into a new programme to invest in
new treatments and better access to effective anti-
venoms. And the WHO is preparing to publish a plan
to halve the number of deaths and disabilities caused
 by snakebites by 2030.
“We’re at a very important point in the effort to do
something about snakebite for some of the poorest
people in the world,” says Dr Williams. “Many already
live in poverty and the consequence of snakebite is
 that they are driven further into debt and despair, even
if they survive.”
Snakebite, though potentially lethal, is treatable.
Wellcome’s director of science, Prof Mike Turner,
says: “With access to the right anti-venom there is
 a high chance of survival. “While people will always
be bitten by venomous snakes, there is no reason so
many should die.”
Dr Philip Price, science lead for snakebites at the
Wellcome Trust, says there is a “spiral of decline” when
 it comes to dealing with snakebites. “The treatments
are expensive, the people who need them often can’t
afford them, and in some cases people can’t make it
to the hospital in time.”
Dr Price said that even when people do reach
 hospital, sometimes the doctors are not trained
adequately, and often treatments are not available. He
said patients may instead turn to traditional healers,
meaning they “fly under the radar” so “most countries
aren’t even aware they have a snakebite problem”.
 Anti-venom treatment is made in the same way
that it has been for more than 100 years. The costly
and laborious process sees antibodies harvested
from horse blood to make anti-venom. But even so, it
is estimated that the world produces only a third of the
 anti-venom that it needs.
The horses are given very low doses of snake
venom over long periods of time, so it does not harm
the animal, says Dr Price. “Eventually the blood is
taken from the horse, and the antibodies are purified
 out. The antibodies inside that blood then bind and
neutralise the venom. “It’s not without risk to inject this
directly into the patient.”
These risks mean victims have to be treated
in hospitals, which can take hours or even days for
 people to travel to. That is often too late to save lives
Another major challenge is that many of the anti-
venoms available are not actually effective. Different
types of snakebites need different types of anti-venom.
 In Africa, for example, up to 90% of available anti-
venom is thought to be ineffective. There is currently
no authoritative international list that exists of all the
anti-venoms available and what they actually treat.
Despite the challenges, achieving the WHO goal
 of halving deaths and disabilities from snakebites over
the next decade is “not all that difficult”, according to
Dr Williams. He has spent decades working on
improving snakebite treatments and education,
particularly in Papua New Guinea.
 “In 2003 in Papua New Guinea, one in every four
children who were bitten by snakes died. Today it’s
less than one in every 50.” Dr Williams says whilst
this is still too many deaths, the solution is “not rocket
 “It’s about having safe, effective anti-venoms,
trained health workers, communities that are engaged
in the problem and are taught how better to prevent
snakebite, and what to do when someone is bitten.”
He said a desperately needed spotlight is finally being
 placed on this avoidable killer.
Available at: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-48281557 Retrieved on: May 18, 2019.
In the text, in terms of reference,
Questão 28 1373380FUVEST 2020
O efeito de comicidade que se obtém do meme decorre, sobretudo, da
Questão 51 1408896URCA 2° Dia 2020/1
What does the word nationalist mean? (Part II)
It's also a word that means different things to different people. "There are different definitions depending on whose nationalism you're talking about," Paul D. Miller, a senior fellow with the Atlantic Council's Scowcroft Center for Strategy and Security, told CNN.
"Scholars generally differentiate between civic and ethnic/sectarian nationalism, that is, between rooting American identity in the ideals of the American experiment versus rooting it in some aspect of our culture, heritage, history, language or ethnicity. Civic nationalism is the same as what I would call patriotism, and it is essential to a healthy democracy. The second kind of nationalism -- sectarian nationalism -- is pernicious and dangerous."
But Raheem Kassam, a former senior adviser to Brexit leader Nigel Farage, rejects this second, more negative definition of nationalist.
"Nationalism is not inherently ugly. It is in fact inherently beautiful," said Kassam, who is currently a fellow at the Middle East Forum.
"Nationalism is a philosophy based around either the nation state, what we know colloquially as 'countries,' or around another identity factor, which could be religion, ethnicity, geography or even interests," he told CNN.
"In the case of President Trump, he is no doubt using the word to outline his belief in a nation of people unified by beliefs, interests and a common history. This is typically what nationalism has meant since the earliest references to it in human history, though there have no doubt been periods where nationalism, just like socialism or other philosophies, has been used to divide rather than unite, which is ironically the antithesis of its purpose."
From: shorturl.at/kmOR1 Accessed on 08/28/2019
De acordo com o texto, em que se baseia o nacionalismo étnico?
Questão 4 1440021UNICAMP 2020
When 24-year-old fashion blogger Scarlett Dixon posted a picture of herself having breakfast, the internet turned nasty. “The best of days start with a smile and positive thoughts. And pancakes. And strawberries”, Dixon wrote on her Instagram feed. The post was reposted on Twitter. “Instagram is a ridiculous lie factory made to make us all feel inadequate”, wrote Nathan from Cardiff. His post, which has garnered more than 111,000 likes (22 times as many as Dixon’s original) and almost 25,000 retweets, prompted a wave of criticism, with comments going like “Fakelife!”.
Instagram looks like the friendliest social network imaginable. But, for a growing number of users – and mental health experts – the very positivity of Instagram is precisely the problem. The site encourages its users to present an upbeat, attractive image that others may find at best misleading and at worse harmful. Instagram makes you worry that everyone is perfect – except you.
(Adaptado de https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/sep/17. Acessado em 19/04/2019).
O texto anterior apresenta uma crítica
Questão 6 1440036UNICAMP 2020
To me, science is one way of connecting with the mystery of existence. And if you think of it that way, the mystery of existence is something that we have wondered about ever since people began asking questions about who we are and where we come from. So while those questions are now part of scientific research, they are much, much older than science. I’m talking about science as part of a much grander and older sort of questioning about who we are in the big picture of the universe. To me, as a theoretical physicist and also someone who spends time out in the mountains, this sort of questioning offers a deeply spiritual connection with the world, through my mind and through my body. Einstein would have said the same thing, I think, with his cosmic religious feeling.
Marcelo Gleiser, March 20, 2019.
(Adaptado de https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/atheism-is-inconsistent-with-the-scien tific-method-prizewinning-physicist-says/?redirect=1. Acessado em 15/05/2019.)
Qual das frases abaixo mais se aproxima das palavras de Gleiser reproduzidas acima?
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