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Questão 20 7111528UEMA 2022
Low-Context Versus High-Context Cultures
If you have traveled much, perhaps you have noticed that people in various parts of the world differ in how direct and explicit their language is. You may have spent time in both low- and high-context cultures in your travels, with context here referring to the broad range of factors surrounding every act of communication.
In a low-context culture, people are expected to be direct and to say what they mean. Individuals in lowcontext cultures prefer precise, concrete language for sending and receiving messages, and are unlikely to rely on the context of a message to determine its meaning. The United States is an example of a low-context society, as are Canada, Israel, and most northern European countries.
In contrast, people in a high-context culture — such as Korea and the cultures of Native Americans and the Maori of New Zealand — are taught to speak in a much less direct way. In such cultures, maintaining harmony and avoiding offense are more important than expressing true feelings. Speech is more ambiguous and people convey much more of their meaning through subtle behaviors and contextual cues, such as their facial expressions and tone of voice.
The difference between low-context and high-context cultures is evident in the ways in which people handle criticism and disagreement. In a low-context culture, a supervisor might reprimand an irresponsible employee openly, to make an example of the individual. The supervisor would probably be direct and explicit about the employee’s shortcomings, the company’s expectations for improvement, and the consequences of the employee’s failing to meet those expectations.
In a high-context culture, however, the supervisor probably wouldn’t reprimand the employee publicly for fear that it would put the employee to shame and cause the worker to “lose face.” Criticism in high-context cultures is more likely to take place in private. The supervisor would also likely use more ambiguous language to convey what the employee was doing wrong, “talking around” the issue instead of confronting it directly. To reprimand an employee for repeated absences, for example, a supervisor might point out that responsibility to coworkers is important and that letting down the team would be cause for shame. The supervisor may never actually say that the employee needs to improve his or her attendance record. Instead, the employee would be expected to understand that message by listening to what the supervisor says and paying attention to the supervisor’s body language, tone of voice, and facial expressions.
When people from low- and high-context cultures communicate with one another, the potential for misunderstanding is great. To appreciate that point, imagine that you’ve asked two of your friends to meet you tomorrow evening for a coffee tasting at a popular bookstore cafe. Tina, an American, says, “No, I’ve got a lot of studying to do, but thanks anyway.” Lee, who grew up in South Korea, nods his head and says, “That sounds like fun.” Thus, you’re surprised later when Lee doesn’t show up.
How can you account for those different behaviors? The answer is that people raised in a high-context culture (such as that of South Korea) are often reluctant to say no—even when they mean no—for fear of causing offense. Another person raised in the South Korean culture might have understood from Lee’s facial expression or tone of voice that he didn’t intend to go to the coffee tasting. If you, like Tina, grew up in a low-context society, however, then you probably interpreted his answer and his nods to mean he was accepting your invitation.
Referência Bibliográfica FLOYD, KORY. Communication Matters. New York: McGraw-Hill Education. 2018.
The sentence in which contrasting ideas can be reflected by one of the linking words in it is
Questão 38 7346694UPE 2º Fase 1º Dia SSA 2022
Acoording to the situation in the cartoon, WIPE OUT is a verb, and the CORRECT translation in the context is
Questão 1 7514134UFMS 2022
Leia o texto a seguir para responder à questão.
Together, we reached for the box and pulled it out. Inside was a shimmering solitaire ring. Folded underneath was a short piece of paper that read:
“My darling, my heart. Only 80 days have passed since I first held your hand. I simply cannot imagine my next 80 years without you in them. Will you take this ring, take my heart, and build a life with me? This tiny little solitaire is my offering to you. Will you be my bride?”
As I stared up at Allie, she asked me a question. “Do you know what today is?” I shook my head. “It’s May 20th. That’s 80 days since Nancy passed your hand into mine and we took you home”
(Fonte: Disponível em: https://examples.yourdictionary.com/essayexamples.html. Acesso em: 24 out. 2021)
Assinale a alternativa que responda corretamente em quais tempos verbais estão as seguintes frases:
(1) “Only 80 days have passed”.
(2) “I first held your hand”.
(3) “Will you be my bride?”.
(4) “Do you know what today is?”.
Questão 2 7514203UFMS 2022
Leia o texto a seguir para responder às questão.
Brazilian Poet Manoel de Barros Dies Aged 97
From São Paulo Contribution for Folha from
The author who wrote verses from the "depths of the trifling", as it features in a poem and one of his books, poet Manoel de Barros died on Thursday morning, November 13th, aged 97, in Campo Grande, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul - MS.
Manoel de Barros was born in Cuiabá and throughout his life he wrote 18 poetry books, in addition to children's books and autobiographical accounts.
He received a number of literary prizes, two of which were Jabuti prizes (Tortoise prizes) - one in 1989 for "O Guardador de Águas" and in 2002 for "O Fazedor do Amanhecer".
Manoel de Barros used to say that "poetry is not supposed to be understood, it is supposed to be incorporated. Understanding it creates a wall. One ought to try to be a tree"
(Texto adaptado. Fonte: Disponível em: . Acesso em: 24 out. 2021)
Leia a seguinte frase e escolha a alternativa correta que expressa o que as palavras em destaque, respectivamente, são.
“Manoel de Barros was born in Cuiabá and throughout his life he wrote 18 poetry books, in addition to children's books and autobiographical accounts.
Questão 5 7514653UFMS 2022
Read the text below and choose the right alternative
First, let me tell you where I’m coming from. Before I saw “The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring”, I didn´t know the difference between an orc and an elf, or what Middle-earth was in the middle of. This review is coming to you from a Tolkien-freezone. I went into Peter Jackson’s movie – the first of a trilogy – with no preconceptions. I came out, three hours later, sorry I’d have to wait a year to see what happens next in Frodo Baggins’s battle against the Dark Lord, Sauron, and thinking a trip to the bookstore to pick “The Two Towers” might be in order. (…)
This is a violent movie – too violent for little ones – and there are moments more “Matrix than medieval. Yet it transcends cheap thrills; we root for the survival of our heroes with depth of feeling that may come to a surprise. The movie keeps drawing you in deeper. Unlike so many overcooked action movies these days, “Fellowship” doesn’t entertain you into a stupor. It leaves you with your wits intact, hungry for more.
(Disponível em: https://www.englishact.com.br/2015/05/atividade-deleitura-e-interpretacao-de_13.html. Acesso em 25 out. de 2021)
As palavras sublinhas no texto: “Went”, “came out” são categorizadas, respectivamente, como:
Questão 43 4000650FMJ 2021
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
What Does It Mean to Tear Down a Statue?
Protesters throwing the statue of the slave trader Edward Colston into a harbour.
Statues of historical figures, including slave traders and Christopher Columbus, are being toppled throughout the U.S. and around the world. This follows years of debate about public display of Confederate symbols. We interviewed the art historian Erin L. Thompson about the topic. Read the excerpt from the interview.
Q. What are some of the issues that arise when we talk about statues being torn down?
A. We have as humans been making monuments to glorify people and ideas since we started making art, and since we started making statues, other people have torn them down. So it’s not surprising that we are seeing people rebelling against ideas that are represented by these statues today.
Q. What do the recent attacks on statues tell us about the protests themselves?
A. The current attacks on statues are a sign that what’s in question is not just our future but our past, as a nation, as a society. These attacks show that we need to question the way we understand the world, even the past, in order to get to a better future.
Q. What’s a statue?
A. I think a statue is a bid for immortality. It’s a way of solidifying an idea and making it present to other people. It’s not the statues themselves but the point of view that they represent. And these [the ones being destroyed] are statues in public places, right? So these are statues claiming that this version of history is the public version of history.
Also, many Confederate statues are made out of bronze, a metal that you can melt down. The ancient Greeks made their major monuments out of bronze. Hardly any of these survived because as soon as regimes changed, as soon as there was war, it got melted down and made into money or a statue of somebody else.
We have been in a period of peace and prosperity — not peace for everybody, but the U.S. hasn’t been invaded, we’ve had enough money to maintain statues. So our generation thinks of public art as something that will always be around. But this is a very ahistorical point of view. I wish that what is happening now with statues being torn down didn’t have to happen this way. But there have been peaceful protests against many of these statues which have come to nothing. So if people lose hope in the possibility of a peaceful resolution, they’re going to find other means.
(www.nytimes.com, 11.06.2020. Adaptado.)
In the excerpt “We have as humans been making monuments to glorify people and ideas”, in the answer to the first question, the underlined fragment can be replaced, without change in the meaning of the sentence, by
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