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Questão 58 1425421UNIFOR 2020
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Samsung developing technology to create fake videos from one single photo.
With new technology like this in development, seeing will no longer mean believing.
news.com.au MAY 28, 2019
Researchers at Samsung’s Artificial Intelligence (AI) Centre in Moscow have created an algorithm that can generate videos using only one image.
The development has caused some worry among technology experts and commentators, 1who see it as a worrying step towards making fake content creation easier.
In a paper published in the preprint journal ArXiv, and in an accompanying video demo, the algorithm creates a video using a single still image, such as the Mona Lisa painting or a photo of Salvador Dali.
The video can be created using one single image but the more images are used, the better the quality.
A sample of 32 images produces a video of near lifelike accuracy
Current AI systems usually require the algorithm to scan large sets of data of a body and face before it can produce a moving picture based on it.
With this new technology, however, creating fake videos will become a lot easier.
The Samsung algorithm was trained using the publicly available VoxCeleb database which has more than 7000 images of celebrities from YouTube videos.
Since the algorithm recognises common characteristics of a person’s face and body, as opposed to specific traits of a subject, it’s able to quickly extrapolate images with little input.
This method also means that the technology is applicable toward non-celebrities and can be used on anyone, even people 2who died a long time ago and were never captured on video.
The AI is currently only able to produce “talking head” style videos from the shoulders up.
Skeptics of deepfake technology, as it is referred to, worry it will be used to spread misinformation and fake news or to steal people’s identity.
O pronome relativo ‘who’, em negrito no texto, refere-se, respectivamente, a:
Questão 11 5149102UEA - SIS 1º Etapa 2020
Leia o texto para responder a questão.
Plastic straws, cotton buds and drink stirrers to be banned in England
Plastic straws and drink stirrers, and cotton buds with plastic stems will be banned from sale and use in England from next April, the government has confirmed. The move, which has been in the offing for more than a year, is hoped to vastly reduce the litter and other environmental impacts of the nearly 5 billion plastic straws currently used each year in England, along with more than 300 million plastic stirrers and close to 2 billion cotton buds with plastic stems.
Huge numbers of these items, particularly cotton buds, are flushed down toilets or otherwise end up in litter – surveys have recently found waterways across the UK full of plastic, putting wildlife at risk.
Alternatives are available, including serving drinks without straws or stirrers, which is preferable, or using paper straws and biodegradable products in place of plastic stirrers and cotton buds. The only exceptions to the new rule will be for people with a medical need or disability, for whom plastic straws and other materials will be available upon request.
(Fiona Harvey. www.theguardian.com, 22.05.2019. Adaptado.
No trecho do segundo parágrafo “Huge numbers of these items”, a expressão sublinhada refere-se a:
Questão 5 5944751PUC-Rio 2020
How robot carers could be the future for lonely elderly people
Alessandro Di Nuovo
December 6, 2018
The film Robot and Frank imagined a near-future
where robots could do almost everything humans
could. The elderly title character was given a “robot
butler” to help him continue living on his own. The
robot was capable of everything from cooking and
 cleaning to socializing and, it turned out, burglary. This
kind of science fiction may turn out to be remarkably
prescient. As growing numbers of elderly people
require care, researchers believe that robots could be
 one way to address the overwhelming demand. But
even though robots might be able to provide care and,
in some cases, social interaction, many wonder if they
really are the right solution to this uniquely human
 Loneliness and social isolation are already
problems for many seniors and are even linked to
cognitive decline and a higher death rate. With the
population of seniors expected to rise, many worry
that experiences of loneliness will increase, especially
 if access to care is even more limited.
But despite concerns, early studies already show
that social robots – autonomous robots trained to
interact and communicate with humans – really could
address issues of care and social interaction. The
 majority of robotics researchers are largely in favour
of introducing robotic technology on a wider scale
and believe it could reduce loneliness and increase
independence in elderly patients. The Japanese
government even supports introducing robots in
 care homes to solve the country’s ageing population
problem. However, many strongly recommend
carefully balancing the care benefits against the
A class of social robots – mobile robotic
 telepresence systems (MRTs) – have already been
shown to generate positive social interactions with
elderly patients. MRTs are essentially video screens
on wheels raised to head height that can be controlled
remotely using a simple smartphone app. They allow
 relatives and social workers to “visit” elderly people
more often, even if they live in rural or distant places.
Elderly patients don’t need to operate the device,
leaving them free to interact with their social worker
or family. Communication still happens through a
 computer screen, but the robot’s physical presence
mimics face-to-face interaction for elderly people.
Research has shown that people reacted more
positively when talking with someone through an MRT
than through a regular video call or computer avatar –
 especially lonely people. However, MRTs still require
a human operator, which limits the amount of social
interaction seniors can have daily.
To tackle this, developers worldwide have
started creating robot companions programmed with
 advanced artificial intelligence (AI), which can interact
with people on their own. Some examples include
pet-like companion robots, including Aibo and Paro,
which are made by Japanese developers, and MiRo,
which is manufactured in the UK. Other humanoid
 robots, such as the Care-O-bot and Pepper, are able
to provide more complex and comprehensive care.
Though “pet” robots offer limited interaction, they
have proved as effective – or even more so – than
real pets in reducing loneliness for elderly people in
 care homes. Robotic dogs introduced in one UK care
home this year were reported to bring happiness and
comfort to residents.
On the other hand, humanoid robots are already
advanced enough to provide much-needed care to
 elderly people. These robots can pick things up and
move independently, and have a more natural, human
way of interacting, for example, using arm and hand
gestures. More advanced versions have additional
sensors and devices, including touchscreens. Many
 elderly people, finding the touchscreens hard to use,
preferred giving spoken commands to the robot and
reading its response off the screen. But for those with
age-related hearing loss or vision impairment, having
the option to use the touchscreen was indispensable.
 Humanoid robots are still being developed, so their
capabilities are still limited. Moreover, studies of
humanoid robots have mainly focused on evaluating
how well the technology functions without really
considering the social impact. There is also a general
 assumption that it will naturally reduce loneliness.
Though research into social robots is just
beginning, we do know they can provide some solutions
to the challenges mounted by ageing populations, and
could even help reduce social isolation and loneliness.
 At this point, humans are still better in providing care
and social contact to the elderly, but robots might
be able to fill any gaps, especially as technologies
continue to improve. However, before social robots
can be fully integrated into care homes, researchers
 and service providers must address public anxiety
and make it clear that robots are designed to assist
social workers, not replace them. As long as humans
remain in full control to prevent any danger, robots
might well be the future of care.
Available at:<https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgetsand-tech/features/robot-carer-elderly-people-lonelinessageing-population-care-homes-a8659801.html>. Retrieved on: July 2, 2019. Adapted.
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Questão 20 1349853FMP 2019
5 Reasons Why Artificial Intelligence Won’t Replace Physicians
Although many signs are pointing towards
the fact that A.I. will completely move the world of
medicine, and many other technologies will also have
a transformative effect on the industry, stating that the
 majority of medical professionals will disappear, is
fearmongering and irresponsible.
According to a report by Carl Benedikt Frey and
Michael A. Osborne from the University of Oxford,
medical transcriptionists, medical records and health
 information technicians and medical secretaries are
the most likely jobs to be computerized in the future,
but physicians and surgeons have a 0.42 percent
chance for their professions being automated.
Moreover, A.I. will transform the meaning of what
 it means to be a doctor: some tasks will disappear,
while others will be added to the work routine. However,
there will never be a situation where the embodiment
of automation, either a robot or an algorithm will take
the place of a doctor. Let me tell you five reasons why.
 1) We cannot replace empathy
Even if the array of technologies will offer brilliant
solutions, it would be difficult for them to mimic
empathy. Why? Because at the core of empathy, there
is the process of building trust: listening to the other
 person, paying attention to their needs, expressing
the feeling of compassion and responding in a manner
that the other person knows they were understood.
At present, you would not trust a robot or a
smart algorithm with a life-altering decision or even
 with a decision whether or not to take painkillers, for
that matter. But we might never be able to imagine
healthcare without human empathy. We will need
doctors holding our hands while telling us about a
life-changing diagnosis, their guide through therapy
 and their overall support. An algorithm cannot replace
2) Physicians have a non-linear working
There was an episode in House M.D. where
 the team couldn’t figure out how a young boy could
have been poisoned. They considered many options:
drugs, food poisoning, pesticide poisoning. For
every possible diagnosis, they suggested a different
treatment option. Each one of them made the patient
 worse – until they figured out, by accident, that the
boy picked up phosmet, a type of insecticide from the
jeans that he bought from a street vendor who kept
the trousers in a truck. The boy didn’t wash the piece
of clothing before wearing it, that’s how his skin could
 absorb the poison.
No algorithm could have made that diagnosis.
Although data, measurements and quantitative
analytics are a crucial part of a doctor’s work, setting
up a diagnosis and treating a patient are not linear
 processes. It requires creativity and problem-solving
skills that algorithms and robots will never have.
3) Complex digital technologies require
More and more sophisticated digital health
 solutions will require the competence of qualified
medical professionals, no matter whether it’s
about robotics or A.I. Take the example of the most
commonly known surgical robot, the da Vinci Surgical
System. It features a magnified 3D high-definition
 vision system and tiny wristed instruments that bend
and rotate far greater than the human hand. However,
surgeons have to learn how to operate it, and it takes
practice to master it.
Likewise, look at IBM Watson. Its unique program
 for oncologists provides clinicians evidence-based
treatment options. Nonetheless, it’s only doctors
together with their patients who can choose the
treatment, and only physicians can evaluate whether
the smart algorithm came up with potentially useful
 suggestions. No robot or algorithm could clearly
interpret complex, multi-layered challenges —
involving the psyche. While they will provide the data,
interpretation will always remain a human territory
4) There will always be tasks algorithms and
 robots can never complete
Physicians, nurses and other members of the
medical staff have plenty of cumbersome monotonous
and repetitive tasks to complete every single day.
However, there are responsibilities and duties which
 technologies cannot perform. While IBM Watson can
sift through millions of pages of documents in seconds,
it will never be able to do the Heimlich maneuver.
There will always be tasks where humans will be
faster, more reliable — or cheaper than technology.
 5) It has never been tech vs. human
The consistent and constant enemy image
building should stop once and for all. It has never
been technology versus humans since technological
innovations always serve the purpose to help people.
 We are playing on the same team. No matter whether
it’s A.I., robotics, augmented or virtual reality, we
should accept that they have a massive influence on
the way healthcare operates, and then start utilizing
 Collaboration between humans and technology is
the ultimate response. The Medical Futurist believes
that this is the perfect example for the coming decades.
Technology will help bring medical professionals
towards a more efficient, less error-prone and more
 seamless healthcare. Our team insists on the usage
of digital tools as we are confident that if utilized in
the right way — ethical and legal concerns NOT set
aside — the physician will have more time for the
patient, the doctor can enjoy his work and healthcare
 will move into an overall positive direction.
Available at: http://medicalfuturist.com/5-reasons-artifi cial- -intelligence-wont-replace-physicians. Retrieved on: June 30, 2018. Adapted
n the fragment of the text “While they will provide the data, interpretation will always remain a human territory” (lines 77-78), the pronoun they refers to
Questão 38 1675470Unit-SE Demais cursos 1º Dia 2019/1
What might your office or apartment have in
common with a NASA spaceship? Unfortunately the
answer may be poor air quality. Indoor air pollutants have
been ranked among the top five environmental risks to
 public health. Living and working in places rife with air
contaminants and lacking decent ventilation can cause
“Sick Building Syndrome”, which can cause headaches,
dizziness, nausea, and eye, ear, and nose
irritations.Given that people spend more than 90 percent
 of their time indoors, air quality matters. Furnishings,
upholstery, synthetic building materials, and cleaning
products in homes and offices can emit a variety of toxic
compounds, like formaldehyde. Indoor air pollution can
also be caused by pollen, bacteria, and molds, as
 outdoor air contaminants like car exhaust finds its way
into buildings. All of these are made worse in small
or poorly-ventilated spaces.
Lucky for us, NASA scientists have been working
to understand this problem and find solutions.The good
 news is that there’s an easy and affordable way to
combat the presence of the yucky stuff we may be
breathing in, and it comes right from the natural world:
Use houseplants to clean the air. Plants purify theair,
making them part of what NASA calls “nature’s life
 support system,” although plants in bloom may be
contributing their own compounds to the air.
So, how do houseplants clean the air? Plants
absorb some of the particulates from the air at the same
time that they take in carbon dioxide, which is then
 processed into oxygen through photosynthesis. But
that’s not all—microorganisms associated with the
plants are present in the potting soil, and these microbes
are also responsible for much of the cleaning effect.
Beyond air quality, plants just make people feel
 better. For example, hospital patients with plants in their
rooms were more positive and had lower blood pressure
and stress levels. Similarly, indoor plants may make
people smarter by allowing them to stay alert and
reducing mental fatigue.
JANOWIAK, Maria. Disponível em: greatist.com/connect/houseplantsthat-clean-air. Acesso em: 1 nov. 2018. Adaptado.
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Questão 17 2642474UNIMONTES 1° Etapa 2019
INSTRUÇÃO: Leia o texto que segue para responder à questão proposta.
THE STORY OF ELLIS ISLAND
Mass migrations have marked the history of the human race ever since people began to dream of a better life
Migration is in the news these days, as Donald Trump tries to set up new physical and administrative barriers
against people wanting to enter the USA – mostly from Central America, Asia and Africa. But a century ago, the USA
welcomed immigrants, most of them people from Europe who were migrating in mass, looking for a better life in the
USA. Ellis Island, the small island in New York Harbor was, for millions of would-be immigrants, their first experience
 of the promised land.
The year is 1906, the date November 16th. Franz and Ulrike Schumacher and their three children have just
disembarked from the Hamburg-Amerika line steamship that has carried them across the stormy North Atlantic
Ocean from Germany.
Like the thousands of other people milling around them, they are totally bewildered, caught up in a mixture of
 hope and apprehension, as they crowd into a vast waiting room. The room sounds like the Tower of Babel, for few of
those in it speak a word of English. They speak German, Polish, Dutch, Hungarian, or Russian maybe, yet they have
come, seeking a new life in a new world; and now they are on American soil for the first time. This is America!
America! Or at least it is Ellis Island.
After interminable hours of waiting, the Schumacher family are finally called to a desk; immigration officials
 study their papers, and ask them where they intend to go. They don't ask how long they're planning to stay, however,
since they know the answer already. All those who pass through Ellis Island – and that could mean over 11,000
people per day – are would-be immigrants. They are looking to start a new life in a new world.
For many, passing through Ellis Island was not so much a matter of stepping into a new world, it was stepping
into a new life, a new character. And so it was that the man who finally led his family through the door and onto the
 ferry packed with a jostling crowd of new Americans was not Franz Schumacher any more, but Frank Shoemaker,
even if he still didn't understand more than a couple of words of English.
Disponível em: https://linguapress.com/advanced/ellis-island.htm. Acesso em: 7 out. 2019. Adaptado.
O pronome “them” (Linha 7), refere-se a(à):
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