Questão 12 4075222UNIVAG 2021
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Can Germans’ right to switch off survive contemporary times?
The lights were all out, the corridors were deserted. Only one computer was still working at the German Freiburg’s Institute for Advanced Studies. Newly-arrived American academic Kristen Ghodsee was working late in her office. Then there was a knock at the door, and in came the institute’s director. “He wanted to know if there was something wrong,” remembers Ghodsee. She replied she was fine, but the director looked at his watch and shook his head. It was 17:30. What seemed perfectly normal to the American, working after hours, was inconceivable to the German. After all, it was Feierabend, a German term which refers both to the end of the working day and the act of turning off from work entirely.
But then along came the smartphone, destabilizing the delicate German work-life balance. Suddenly, phones were in every pocket, laptops in every bag. All at once, everyone had access to work communication outside the office, on the go and at home. It wasn’t long before the digital revolution was invading Germans’ sacred rest time. By 2015, more than a quarter of employees said bosses wanted them to be contactable at all hours, a national survey revealed. This despite a 2003 law stating workers’ 11-hour break couldn’t be interrupted.
It seems many employees agree the idea of an uninterrupted break is too rigid. Last year, 96% of workers interviewed by Germany’s digital association Bitkom said they would like to organise their own work schedule to fit around their lives. But those responsible for employee protection are worried. “A lot of the shortening of rest periods is happening because people are working such long hours, not because they are working flexibly,” says research associate Nils Backhaus.
The 11-hour rest period is also there to protect workers from themselves. Originally intended to make sure factory workers could recover physically between shifts, Backhaus says the break is just as necessary for mental regeneration. “Worker protection is just as needed in our new world of digitalisation, home office and smartphones”, says David Markworth.
(Josie Le Blond. www.bbc.com, 24.02.2020. Adaptado.)
No trecho do primeiro parágrafo “which refers both to the end of the working day and the act of turning off from work entirely”, os termos sublinhados estabelecem sentido de
Questão 1 6829182UFMS PSV 2021
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RUBIÃO found a rival in the heart of Quincas Borba, - a dog, a beautiful dog, half size, lead-colored fur, spotted black. Quincas Borba took it everywhere they slept in the same room. In the morning, it was the dog that woke him up, in bed, where they exchanged their first greetings. One of the owner's extravagances was giving it his own name; but, he explained it for two reasons, one doctrinal, another particular (...).
- You should laugh, my dear. Because immortality is my lot or my dowry, or as best name there is. I will live perpetually in my book. Those who, however, do not can read, charlatan Quincas Borba to the dog, and ...
The dog, hearing the name, ran to the bed. Quincas Borba, touched, looked at Quincas Borba.
- My poor friend! my good friend! my only friend!
- Excuse me, you are too, I know, and I thank you very much; but to a sick person everything is forgiven. Perhaps my delusion is beginning. Let me see the mirror.
Trecho traduzido a partir de: http://www.dominiopublico.gov.br/download/texto/b v000243.pdf. Acesso em: 15 dez. 2020.
Os vocábulos grifados no primeiro parágrafo referem-se a:
Questão 45 4049475UNICID 2019
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Healthy Heart in the Amazon
How to maintain a healthy heart is a surprisingly contentious question. Diet and exercise are crucial, everyone agrees – but the ideal specifics and the relationships among them remain mysterious. Some experts recommend avoiding dietary fats; others endorse fat and low carbohydrates. The impact of high levels of inflammation on heart disease is disputed. And almost no one can agree about how much (or what type of) exercise is optimal.
Nevertheless, a study published last month in The Lancet points the way to resolving some of these issues by focusing on the Tsimane, a group of subsistence farmers and hunters living in Bolivia along a tributary of the Amazon River. Anthropologists have learned a lot about the lives of the Tsimane since they began studying them 15 years ago. The men typically spend seven hours or so of every day hunting, fishing or poling their canoes to towns to sell and procure food. The women devote almost as much time to gathering nuts and farming rice, corn and plantains. Men and women cover roughly eight miles each, or 17,000 steps, each day. Their diet is heavy on carbs: 72 percent of their daily calories derive from unprocessed starches, 14 percent from saturated and unsaturated fats and 14 percent from protein. Many Tsimane experience frequent infections and show chronically elevated levels of inflammation.
For the Lancet study, anthropologists teamed with cardiologists who drew blood from 705 Tsimane men and women between the ages of 40 and 94. The researchers also conducted cardiac scans, enabling them to score the presence of atherosclerosis, a disease characterized by plaque buildup inside a person’s cardiac arteries. A score of 0 meant essentially no detectable disease; 1 to 99, low levels; and 400 or greater would be high. Eighty-five percent of the volunteers scored 0; only 3 percent exceeded 99. Even among those older than 75, only 8 percent exceeded 99. A single person scored higher than 399. As a group, the Tsimane had scores less than one-fifth those of people in the United States or Europe. They exhibited even less atherosclerosis than Japanese women, previously thought to have the world’s healthiest arteries. In general, the Tsimane developed the first signs of atherosclerosis almost 25 years later than their counterparts in the industrialized West.
The implications of these findings are complex, says Hillard Kaplan, an anthropologist at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque and the study’s co-author. They raise questions about the effect of fats and carbohydrates on the heart and also about the cardiac impacts of inflammation, which does not contribute noticeably to atherosclerosis among the Tsimane. But Kaplan says the study indicates how essential it is to be very active physically – the Tsimane were in almost constant motion every day.
(Gretchen Reynolds. www.nytimes.com, 06.04.2017. Adaptado.)
No trecho do segundo parágrafo “learned a lot about the lives of the Tsimane since they began studying them”, o termo sublinhado se refere a
Questão 18 370135UFAM PSC 2018/3
https://www.theguardian.com/world/hurricane-irma (acessado em 07 de setembro de 2017)
Barbuda, the first island to feel the force of Hurricane Irma was devastated by its high winds, with Gaston Browne, prime minister of Antigua and Barbuda, saying 90% of buildings had been destroyed and 50% of the population of around 1,000 people left homeless. Critical facilities including roads and communications systems were ravaged, with the recovery effort set to take months or years. Some residents are expected to be evacuated to the larger sister island of Antigua – where damage was less severe – as part of relief efforts and ahead of the prospective arrival of Hurricane Jose this weekend. At least eight people were killed in St Martin, according to French officials. The number of victims on the Dutch half of the island, St Maarteen, is unknown. Netherlands prime minister Mark Rutte says there has been “enormous material damage” to St Maarten. The French president, Emmanuel Macron, earlier said he expected Irma-related damage to St Martin and another French overseas collectivity, Saint Barthélemy (St Barts), would be “considerable”. France’s overseas minister, Annick Girardin, was travelling to the Caribbean with emergency teams and supplies. The most recent island to be hit was Puerto Rico, where lashing winds and rains have left most of the population without power and tens of thousands without water. Images from the island showed flash flooding, and hospitals were forced to rely on generators. Irma is the worst hurricane to hit the island since 1928, when Hurricane San Felipe killed more than 2,700 people across Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe and Florida .More than two thirds of homes in Puerto Rico are without electricity, and 17% are without water, officials have said.. Florida’s governor, Rick Scott, warned that the arrival of Irma’s lifethreatening wind field and storm surge was imminent, and urged residents in coastal areas to leave immediately. About 250,000 people were ordered to evacuate, making it of the largest evacuations in US history as the National Hurricane Center (NHC) placed south Florida, including the southernmost counties of Monroe, Miami-Dade and Broward, under a hurricane watch. Preparations were escalating at a furious pace as the storm’s forecast path narrowed in on the south-eastern portion of the state, home to 7 million residents. Philip Levine, the mayor of Miami Beach, ordered a mandatory evacuation of the barrier island beginning at daybreak on Thursday. “This is a nuclear hurricane,” he said. “I’ll do anything in my power to convince them to leave. Get off Miami Beach.”Scott warned that that effects of the storm could begin to be felt later on Friday, with the NHC predicting Irma’s full wrath would strike the south-east coast near Miami sometime late Saturday or early Sunday morning then move north.“Look at the size of the storm,” Scott said. “It’s huge, it’s wider than our entire state right now. If you are under an evacuation order do not wait. Leave and get out. We can rebuild your home but you can’t get your life back.”
“Them”, em negrito, se refere a:
Questão 50 1439432URCA 2° Dia 2017/2
VEGAN VS VEGETARIAN – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
By Alina Petre
Vegetarian diets have reportedly been around since as early as 700 B.C. Several types exist and individuals may practice them for a variety of reasons, including health, ethics, environmentalism and religion. Vegan diets are a little more recent, but are getting a good amount of press.
What is a vegetarian diet?
According to the Vegetarian Society, a vegetarian is someone who does not eat any meat, poultry, game, fish, shellfish or byproducts of animal slaughter. Vegetarian diets contain various levels of fruits, vegetables, grains, pulses, nuts and seeds. The inclusion of dairy and eggs depends on the type of diet you follow.
The most common types of vegetarians include:
• Lacto-ovo vegetarians: Vegetarians who avoid all animal flesh, but do consume dairy and egg products.
• Lacto vegetarians: Vegetarians who avoid animal flesh and eggs, but do consume dairy products.
• Ovo vegetarians: Vegetarians who avoid all animal products except eggs.
• Vegans: Vegetarians who avoid all animal and animalderived products.
Those who do not eat meat or poultry but do consume fish are considered pescatarians, whereas parttime vegetarians are often referred to as flexitarians.
Although sometimes considered vegetarians, pescatarians and flexitarians do eat animal flesh. Therefore, they do not technically fall under the definition of vegetarianism.
From: https://goo.gl/n9yEy1. Accessed on 03/22/2017
The pronoun them (first paragraph) refers to:
Questão 16 1542249PUC-PR Medicina Inverno 2016
What do the highlighted words in the text refer to? Choose the CORRECT option.
Evolution “Began” In Brazil
The theories on evolution and natural selection began with Charles Darwin, who made public his groundbreaking ideas in a book entitled On the Origin of Species, which was first published in 1859. Darwin found the inspiration for his ideas while on a research trip aboard the ship the H.M.S. Beagle. Darwin’s primary destination was the Galapagos Islands, and it was during his five-year voyage from his home in England that he developed his theory of natural selection.
What many people don’t know about Darwin is that his epic voyage on the H.M.S. Beagle, before arriving at the Galapagos Islands, he first arrived in South America in Bahia, Brazil in 1832. Additionally, Darwin wasn’t the only important European scientist to come to Brazil to study nature. Two of Darwin’s fellow Englishmen, Alfred Russel Wallace and Henry Walter Bates, they arrived at Pará in 1848. Wallace roamed the Amazon for four years, and the remarkable Bates explored the Amazon region for eleven years.
Available in: http://curitibainenglish.com.br/culture/literature/evolution-began-in-brazil/. Access in: August, 2015.