Questão 11 6131536UEA - SIS 3° Etapa 2021
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The ways homelessness affects people is considerable. Homelessness contributes to challenges regaining stability and getting to work and school, and can have a lifelong impact.
When you become homeless, you lose so much. You no longer have a place to sleep, store food, cook, and eat. There is nowhere to keep your clothes, or go to the bathroom and take a bath or shower. You may need to leave your neighbors and neighborhood and may have a harder time getting to school or work. Homelessness leads to increased feelings of uncertainty, vulnerability, and isolation.
Homeless people experience great physical and mental stress. This can result in health challenges while homeless and exacerbate pre-existing conditions and disabilities. Being homeless can lead to increased chances of having chronic pain; skin, foot, and dental problems; diseases and illnesses such as tuberculosis, hypertension, asthma, and diabetes.
Many homeless people do not have access to medicine or regular physical or mental health care treatment. They tend to be hospitalized more often than people with homes. Homeless people are more likely to die prematurely as a result of injuries, unintentional overdoses, and extreme weather.
No trecho do último parágrafo “Homeless people are more likely to die prematurely”, o termo sublinhado indica que, para pessoas em situação de rua, a morte prematura é
Questão 16 4062107UNIVAG 2020
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No trecho do segundo quadrinho “madly in love”, o termo sublinhado pode ser substituído, sem alteração de sentido, por:
Questão 35 6312216UNIFIMES 2020
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Smoking damages eyes as well as lungs
Millions of people in the UK are putting their sight at risk by continuing to smoke, warn specialists. Despite the clear connection, only one in five people recognise that smoking can lead to blindness, a poll for the Association of Optometrists (AOP) finds. Smokers are twice as likely to lose their sight compared with non-smokers.
That is because tobacco smoke can cause and worsen a number of eye conditions. Cigarette smoke contains toxic chemicals that can irritate and harm the eyes. For example, heavy metals, such as lead and copper, can collect in the lens - the transparent bit that sits behind the pupil and brings rays of light into focus - and lead to cataracts, where the lens becomes cloudy.
Smoking can make diabetes-related sight problems worse by damaging blood vessels at the back of the eye (the retina). In the poll of 2,006 adults, 18% correctly said that smoking increased the risk of blindness or sight loss, while three-quarters (76%) knew smoking was linked to cancer. The AOP says stopping or avoiding smoking is one of the best steps you can take to protect your vision, along with having regular sight checks.
(www.bbc.com, 02.07.2019. Adaptado.)
In the excerpt from the third paragraph “one of the best steps you can take”, the underlined word expresses
Questão 18 7333780UNIVESP 2020
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The End of Poverty
Equality is a very big idea, connected to freedom, but an idea doesn’t come for free. In a world where distance no longer determines who your neighbor is, paying the price for equality is not just heart, it’s smart. The destinies of the “haves” are intrinsically linked to the fates of the “have-nothing-at-alls”. If we didn’t know this already, it became too clear on September 11, 2001. Africa is not the front line in the war against terror, but it soon could be.
“The war against terror is bound up in the war against poverty.” Who said that? Not me. Not some beatnik peace group. Secretary of State Colin Powell. And when a military man starts talking like that perhaps we should listen. In tense, nervous times isn’t it cheaper – and smarter – to make friends out of potential enemies than to defend yourself against them?
We could be the first generation to outlaw the kind of extreme, stupid poverty that sees a child die of hunger in a world of plenty, or of a disease preventable by a twenty-cent inoculation. We are the first generation that has enough power to do that. The first generation that is powerful enough to unknot the whole tangle of bad trade, bad debt, and bad luck. The first generation that can end a corrupt relationship between the powerful and the weaker parts of the world which has been so wrong for so long.
If the rich nations decided they could become slightly “poorer”, they would truly help the nations in need. If they agreed to write off the old debts of the poor countries, the whole world would be safer. This year millions of people gathered to persuade world leaders to invest more in fighting poverty and disease in Africa.
We cannot save energy life. But the ones we can, we must. It is – or it ought to be – unacceptable that an accident of longitude determines whether a child lives or dies. Fifteen thousand people dying needlessly every day from AIDS, TB, and malaria. Behind each of these statistics is someone’s daughter, someone’s son, a mother, a father, a sister, a brother.
This is Africa’s crisis. That it’s not on the nightly news, that we do not treat this as an emergency – that’s our crisis.
(adapted from Bono’s foreword to the End of Poverty, Jeffrey Sachs, Penguin Press, and “This is Generation’s Moon Shot”, by Bono in Time)
Assinale a alternativa correta para o verbo em destaque na frase abaixo.
Africa is not the front line in the war against terror, but it soon “could” be.
Questão 36 3640122EEAR 2019/2
Read the text to answer the question.
The cost of a cigarette
A businesswoman’s desperate need for a cigarette on an 8-hour flight from American Airlines ________ in her being arrested and handcuffed, after she was found lighting up in the toilet of a Boeing 747, not once but twice. She ___________ because she _______ violent when the plane landed in England, where the police subsequently arrested and handcuffed her. Joan Norrish, aged 33, yesterday ________ the first person to be prosecuted under new laws for smoking on board a plane, when she was fined £440 at Uxbridge magistrates’ court.
Adapted from Innovations , by Hugh Dellar and Darryl Hocking.
The words “violent” and “subsequently”, underlined in the text, are:
Questão 45 6521649FASM 2019
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Is owning a dog good for your health?
Dogs really are our best friends, according to a Swedish study that says canine ownership could reduce heart disease. A study of 3.4 million people between the ages of 40 and 80 found that having a dog was associated with a 23% reduction in death from heart disease and a 20% lower risk of dying from any cause over the 12 years of the study.
Previous studies have suggested dogs relieve social isolation and depression – both linked to an increased risk of heart disease and early death. Dog owners show better responses to stress, their blood pressure and pulse rates don’t soar, have higher levels of physical activity and slightly lower cholesterol levels. The American Heart Association was sufficiently swayed by a review of dozens of studies to release a statement in 2013 saying that owning a dog “was probably” associated with a reduced risk of heart disease. Their reluctance to more strongly endorse dog ownership is because most studies are what is called observational – researchers note an association, but can’t prove causation. This means that other factors might explain why dog owners are healthier than, say, goldfish owners – for example, perhaps only people who are fit in the first place buy pets that need daily walks.
Tove Fall, an epidemiologist and the lead author of this latest study, says they tried their best to allow for any differences in education, existing ill-health and lifestyles between those with and without dogs. The study found the biggest positive impact of having a dog was on people living alone. “It seems that a dog can be a substitute for living with other people in terms of reducing the risk of dying,” says Fall. “Dogs encourage you to walk, they provide social support and they make life more meaningful. If you have a dog, you interact more with other people. If you do get ill and go into hospital and you have a dog, there’s a huge motivation to try to get back home.” Of course, getting a dog and watching it from your sofa while you eat fatty food is not going to reduce your risk of heart disease.
(Luisa Dillner. www.theguardian.com, 04.12.2017. Adaptado.)
In the excerpt from the second paragraph “other factors might explain”, the underlined word expresses