Questão 28 6510873FMABC 2020
Leia o anúncio para responder à questão.
The term “yet” can be replaced, with no change in meaning, by
Questão 9 6402501EFOMM 2015
Five stranded snorkellers rescued from tiny island off Australia after their huge SOS message was spotted by helicopter.
(Adam Withnall / Wednesday 23 April 2014)
Five snorkellers stranded on a tiny island off
the east coast of Australia have been rescued after
scrawling a giant SOS message into a nearby
 The group had been stuck out at sea for more
than nine hours after their boat’s anchor failed and
it drifted away.
They had been swimming around a remote
sandbar near Wigton Island, Queensland, when the
 vessel started shifting - with their mobile phones,
clothes, water and sunscreen all still on board – and
it had moved beyond reach before they had time to
Speaking to the Courier-Mail about the ordeal
 yesterday, Lyn Forbes-Smith described how she, a
female friend and three male friends were facing
the prospect of a long, cold night surrounded by
ocean when they finally spotted an approaching
 “We had sort of made plans about what we’d
do on the rock for the evening,” she said.
“We had reef walkers on thankfully, but we
had no food, water, cream, no hats, not much at all.
We just looked for the highest ground, we looked
for rocks where five of us could huddle together
 because we didn’t really want to separate, and we
wanted to be out of the wind as best as possible.”
Ms Forbes-Smith explained that they were
concerned the sandbar – and their message – would
 go under with the tide, but that they were
“reasonably confident” someone would come
looking when friends realised they had not
The group had set off from Keswick Island
 towards Wigton Island at around 8am for the
snorkelling trip, and it was around 5pm when they
first saw signs of help approaching.
Another member of the group, Craig Gilbert,
told ABC News of their joy at spotting an RACQ
 rescue helicopter.
“We saw the helicopter and we thought, 'Oh,
you beauty' - and then it disappeared and we
thought, 'Oh no - we better look out for our beds
for the night' - then it came back probably 20
minutes later,” he said.
Rescue helicopter crew member Damien
 Kross said the five were treated for sunburn and
dehydration, but were otherwise “fine”.
“They were a little bit dehydrated but we
winched them to safety and brought them back here
to Mackay on the mainland] for just to have a
 quick medical attention and they were all fine.”
(Adapted from The Independent / Friday 11 July 2014)
Complete the sentences with too many, too much or enough.
Then, choose the correct alternative.
1- I've been to rather __________ parties recently.
2 - You're spending far ________ time on your computer.
3 - Stop. You're asking me _______ questions.
4 - Help! I've got _________ luggage.
5 – Oh, sorry, I didn't call you. I didn't have _________ time.
Questão 5 6371029AFA 2022
Answer question to according to the text.
When making a decision, it is a common impulse
to look and see what others are doing. Nevertheless, it is
often unclear whether the path that everyone else may
be following is good for us as well. After all, sometimes
 following the crowd has merit - at other times, it is simply
peer pressure blinding us.
The phenomenon of looking to others and
following the crowd _______ by social science for a long
time. Nevertheless, those findings do not always make
 their way to individual decision-makers. Therefore, let’s
review why people conform to the crowd – and under
what conditions it is a god idea to go your own way
To start, individuals tend to look to the opinions of
 others, especially when they are unsure and lack
information from other sources. This dynamic was
supported by classic research from Sherif (1937), who
explored how a person’s perception of a very ambiguous
stimuli can be influenced by the opinion of others. Sherif
 (1937) asked participants to watch a small light in a dark
and featureless room and evaluate how much that light
moved around. In actuality, however, the light never
moved at all – but the way our perception works in that
situation gives the possible illusion of movement (called
 the Autokinetic Effect). In this uncertain and ambiguous
perceptual situation, Sherif (1937) found that individuals
were quite susceptible to the influence of the opinions of
others when trying to decide how much light was
 Unfortunately, this phenomenon also extends to
individuals following the crowd, even when they can
clearly see that others are wrong. This was first
evaluated by Asch (1955), who asked participants to
pick a line from a few choices of varying lengths that
 matched up with another example line given to them.
From a perceptual standpoint, the task was easy – as
the correct choice of which lines were actually similar to
one another was clear. Nevertheless, when participants
were surrounded by other individuals giving the wrong
 answer, they often conformed and made the wrong
choice as well. Thus, even when the correct choice is
clear, and what others are doing is wrong, that peer
pressure can still cause us to doubt ourselves and follow
 Why is it that we are so compelled to follow the
crowd, even when it is objectively clear that they are
wrong? According to more recent research, we may
simply be wired that way. Specifically, these social
influences can actually change our perceptions and
 memories (Edelson, Sharot, Dolan, & Dudai, 2011).
Therefore, rather than knowingly making the wrong
choice just to conform to peer pressure, the influence of
others may actually change what we see as the correct
choice in the moment and remember as the right thing
 after the fact. Beyond that, we might just have “herding
brains” with built-in components that monitor our social
alignments and make us feel good when we follow the
crowd too (Shamay-Tsoory, Saporta, Marton-Alper, &
 Fortunately, this effect has good points as well. In
many cases, group decision-making can help individuals
look beyond their own private perspectives and make
more rational decisions (Fahr & Irlenbusch, 2011).
Furthermore, pro-social and altruistic behaviors can be
 influenced and shared through such conformity as well
(Nook, Ong, Morelli, Mitchell, & Zaki, 2016). Therefore,
sometimes following the crowd helps people get along
and make better decisions too.
Given the above, when making a decision, it is
 important to consider whether following others is a good
idea – or is leading you astray instead. Some simple
steps can help you figure it out.
Getting swept away by what everyone else is
doing is often an emotional and thoughtless process. We
 are conforming simply because we have not given
sufficient attention and effort toward considering any
other options. Therefore, unless you are in an
emergency situation and need to immediately follow
everyone else toward the nearest exit, it might be a good
 idea to switch to more deliberate thinking processes,
rather than just going with your initial reaction.
Some choices and decision-making situations
are more individual, while others are more social.
Therefore, it is important to consider the specific
 situation. Is this an individual choice, or does it involve
others? If you have sufficient information to make a clear
choice on your own, and you do not need group
approval, then you might want to make up your own
mind. If you are personally unsure, or you need the
 support of others to make something happen, then
taking the opinion of others into consideration might be a
good idea instead.
It is generally a good idea to evaluate your
choices and decisions from multiple perspectives. The
 same is true for following the opinion of others too.
Although it might not feel that way at times, especially in
the modern day of media coverage and social
networking, everyone is not doing it – whatever “it” is
that you are considering. Given that, before you follow
 the advice or choices of any particular group of people, it
might be a good idea to look at what other groups of
people are doing or choosing too. In addition, we can
learn a lot from people making choices contrary to
ourselves or our preferred group, particularly about
 potential down-sides to choices we might not be seeing.
Therefore, if you do need to look to others to help
provide information regarding a particular choice or
decision, then it might help to seek out people with a few
different opinions, weigh your options among them, and
 figure out what will work best for you.
(Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Access on March 25th, 2021)
In the text, the word even (line 31)
Questão 28 2237300EEAR 2015
Read the text and answer question.
The Goose and the Golden egg
There was once ________ Countryman who
possessed the most wonderful Goose you can imagine,
for every day when he visited the nest, the Goose had
laid a beautiful, glittering, Golden egg.
 The Countryman took the eggs to the market and
soon began to get rich. But he grew impatient with
________ Goose because she gave him only a single
Golden egg a day. He was not getting rich fast enough.
Then one day, after he had finished counting his
 money, he thought that he could get all the Golden eggs
at once by killing the Goose and cutting 1t open. But
when he killed her, he didn't find a single Golden egg
and his precious Goose was dead.
(Adapted from “The Goose and the Golden egg”)
nest – ninho
ghttering – brilhante
“enough”, underlined in the text, is
Questão 13 6856548FEMA Medicina 2018/2
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
Britain needs to go on a diet, says top health officials
The portion sizes of some of Britain’s most popular foods are to be cut, with health officials telling the public it is time “to get on a diet”. Public Health England (PHE) is targeting pizzas, ready meals, processed meat and takeaways, in a new obesity drive. The government agency has also urged the food industry to start using healthier ingredients and encourage the public to opt for lower calorie foods. It is all part of a drive to cut calorie consumption by 20% by 2024.
The target will apply to 13 different food groups, responsible for a fifth of the calorie intake of children. But PHE chief executive Duncan Selbie said the steps were as much about influencing the diets of adults. “Britain needs to go on a diet. Children and adults routinely eat too many calories, and it’s why so many are overweight or obese,” he said.
The agency is also launching a campaign encouraging adults to consume 400 calories at breakfast and 600 each at lunch and dinner. It is being seen as a rough guide for consumers to follow when they buy meals away from home. A quarter of food is now bought from cafes, restaurants, takeaways or as food-to-go from shops. PHE said major groups such as McDonald’s, Subway and Greggs would be promoting foods that kept people within these guidelines.
Currently adults consume between 200 and 300 calories more than they should each day. PHE chief nutritionist Dr. Alison Tedstone said the campaign would make it easier for “people to make healthier choices” by being able to judge what they should be eating in each sitting. “To get traction on this, the big-selling things need to change. A few healthy options on the end of a menu won’t help solve the nation’s obesity problem – we need the regular, everyday products to change,” she said.
(Nick Triggle. www.bbc.com, 06.03.2018. Adaptado.)
In the excerpt from the second paragraph “the steps were as much about influencing the diets”, the underlined words can be replaced, with no change in meaning, by