Questões de Inglês - Grammar
Questão 8 1259320FGV-SP Economia - 1ºFase - LEI/FIS/QUI/LPO - BLOCO 02 2017
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Patience is needed for Brazil to come good again
Dr. Michael Hasenstab is executive vice-president, portfolio manager and chief investment officer of Templeton Global Macro
The Olympic Games in Rio drew global interest to Brazil, but the country and the rest of South America has been in sharp focus for investors all year. They have flocked to the region as part of a broader migration into emerging market debt, following record low valuations and the hunt for yield in a low interest rate environment. While investors have been presented with a rarely seen buying opportunity in emerging markets like South America, it is a mistake to regard these countries as a homogenous group.
That leaves the challenge of working out which are the most attractive opportunities – some of our best known investments were not obvious choices.
We have devised a formula to help us evaluate the fundamental strength of different emerging market countries. It scores a country’s current and projected strength on five factors: how well it has learnt the lessons from past crises; the quality of its policy mix; the structural reform being undertaken to boost productivity; the level of domestic demand; and its ability to resist external shocks. The aim is to pick nations that are fundamentally strong but, for one reason or another, are out of favour with investors. It can take time for the market to catch up to reality. But if you are a long-term investor – and we are certainly in that camp – you have the luxury of being able to wait.
Brazil, for example, is known as a vulnerable market due to the commodities downturn, the ongoing corruption crisis and ensuing political turmoil, but our work suggests to us that it is poised for a potentially significant rebound in the long term. Its current score is low, but its projected future score tells a different story.
We believe the country has learnt the lessons from the most recent crisis, which brought home the importance of having a sustainable fiscal policy. It has already adopted a flexible exchange rate, has strong foreign exchange reserves and has limited short-term debt. This is also reflected in the country’s improving resilience to external shocks, with a reliance on commodities, at 60 per cent of exports, being the largest remaining negative.
It is perhaps no surprise, given Brazil’s deep recession and political instability, that there is much work required in terms of improving policy mix, making structural reforms and boosting domestic demand. However, there are signs things are being turned around, with monetary policy already being tightened aggressively to bring inflation expectations back under control, and the previously excessive levels of governmentsubsidised lending being cut. Once political stability returns, the government will be empowered to do even more.
Work on structural reform should accelerate too, as Brazil’s middle class has made it clear it wants greater transparency and an economic policy
framework that can both boost living standards and improve the environment for businesses.
(www.ft.com. 01.09.2016. Adaptado)
In the excerpt of the fourth paragraph “Brazil, for example, is known as a vulnerable market due to the commodities downturn”, the expression in bold introduces a
Questão 66 1037866EsPCEx 2° Dia 2011
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Life and the Movies
Joey Potter looked at her friend Dawson Leery and she smiled sadly.
“Life isn’t like a movie, Dawson,” she said. “We can’t write happy endings to all our relationships.”
Joey was a pretty girl with long brown hair. Both Joey and Dawson were nearly sixteen years old. The two teenagers had problems. All teenagers have the same problems - life, love, school work, and parents. It isn’t easy to become an adult.
Dawson loved movies. He had always loved movies. He took film classes in school. He made short movies himself. Dawson wanted to be a film director. His favorite director was Steven Spielberg. Dawson spent a lot of his free time filming with his video camera. He loved watching videos of great movies from the past. Most evenings, he watched movies with Joey.
“These days, Dawson always wants us to behave like people in movies,” Joey thought. And life in the little seaside town of Capeside wasn’t like the movies.
Joey looked at the handsome, blond boy who was sitting next to her. She thought about the years of their long friendship. They were best friends...
ANDERS, C. J. Retold by CORNISH, F. H. Dawson’s Creek. Shifting into overdrive. Oxford, Macmillan, 2005.
In the sentence “All teenagers have the same problems - life, love, school work, and parents”, the conjunction and indicates
Questão 47 5950096PUC-MG 2021
Why do we buy into the 'cult' of overwork?
By Bryan Lufkin, 9th May 2021
Although many of us associate overly ambitious workaholism with the 1980s and the finance industry, the tendency to devote ourselves to work and glamourize long-hours culture remains as pervasive as ever. In fact, it is expanding into more sectors and professions, in slightly different packaging. Overwork isn't a phenomenon exclusive to Silicon Valley or Wall Street. People work long hours all over the world, for many different reasons
In Japan, a culture of overwork can be traced back to the 1950s, when the government pushed hard for the country to be rebuilt quickly after World War Two. In Arab League countries, burnout is high among medical professionals, possibly because its 22 members are developing nations with overburdened healthcare systems, studies suggest. Reasons for overwork also depend on industry. Some of the earliest researchers on burnout in the 1970s asserted that many people in jobs geared toward helping others, like employees in clinics or crisis-intervention centers, tended to work long hours that led to emotional and physical exhaustion – a trend which is shown up in the pandemic, too. But millions of us overwork because somehow, we think it’s exciting – a status symbol that puts us on the path to success, whether we define that by wealth or an Instagram post that makes it seem like we're living a dream life with a dream job. Romanticization of work seems to be an especially common practice among "knowledge workers" in the middle and upper classes. In 2014, the New Yorker called this devotion to overwork "a cult".
According to Anat Lechner, clinical associate professor of management at New York University. "We glorify the lifestyle, and the lifestyle is: you breathe something, you sleep with something, you wake up and work on it all day long, then you go to sleep. Again, and again and again."
Adapted from: Home - BBC Worklife.
What does the word “for” in “for many different reasons” indicate?
Questão 34 6801817FEMA 2019
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Mysterious delivery: 50 old TVs appear on neighborhood’s porches
Associated Press Published 9:16 p.m. ET Aug. 13, 2019 | Updated 9:40 p.m. ET Aug. 13, 2019
RICHMOND, Va. – Police in Virginia say more than 50 television sets _____________ mysteriously placed on front porches in a neighborhood outside Richmond. Henrico County police Lt. Matt Pecka said residents found older model televisions outside their front doors Sunday morning.
He told the Richmond Times-Dispatch that video from one doorbell camera showed a person wearing TVshaped headgear while dropping off a TV set. Police believe that more than one person is responsible. A similar incident occurred in a nearby neighborhood last year. It’s unclear if the incident is a crime. Pecka said that dropping off the televisions on front porches is “at most” illegal dumping.
Most of the TVs will be recycled. But a couple residents indicated they would keep their televisions for now.
From: https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2019/08/13/50- tvs-mysteriously-delivered-richmond-virginia-areaneighborhood/2004769001/
Assinale a alternativa que melhor completa a lacuna deixada no texto:
Questão 65 299293UFRGS FIS-LIT-ING-ESP 2018
The complex linguistic universe of Game of Thrones
Game of Thrones has garnered 38 Emmy
awards for its portrayal of a world of sex,
violence and politics so real that some viewers
could imagine moving there. Part of that detail
 has been the creation of the richest linguistic
universe since J.R.R. Tolkien’s Middle Earth.
In the field of language-creation for fictional
worlds, there is Tolkien, and there is everybody
else. But David Peterson, the language-smith
 of Game of Thrones, comes a close second for
the amount of thought put into its two
languages, Dothraki and Valyrian. The interest
in these tongues is such that a textbook for
learning Dothraki has been published, while
 Duolingo, a popular online language-learning
platform, now offers a course in High Valyrian.
Inspired by fictional languages such as those
in the Star Wars films and with a master’s
degree in linguistics, Peterson made Dothraki
 and Valyrian as rich and realistic as possible.
Creating words is the easy part; anyone can
string together nonsense syllables. But
Peterson, like Tolkien, took the trouble to give
his words etymologies and cousins, so that
 the word for “feud” is related to the words
“blood” and “fight”. To make the languages
pronounceable but clearly foreign, he put
non-English sounds in high-frequency words
(like khaleesi, or queen), put the stress in
 typically non-English places, and had words
begin with combinations of sounds that are
impossible in English, like hr.
Armed with a knowledge of common linguistic
sound changes, he gives his languages the
 kinds of irregularities and disorder that arise in
the real world: High Valyrian’s obar
(“curve”) becomes Astapori Valyrian’s uvor.
Words’ meanings—as in real life—drift, too,
giving the system more realistic messiness.
 Languages also play a prominent role in the
storyline. Dothraki is the guttural language of
a horse-borne warrior nation, but high-born
Daenerys Targaryen does not look down on it;
methodically learning it is key to her rise.
 Tyrion Lannister is left to administer the city
of Mereen despite his ropy command of
Valyrian, leading to some comic moments.
And a prophecy of a future hero acquires new
meaning when an interpreter explains that the
 word in question is ambiguous in Valyrian—it
could be “prince” or “princess”.
It might seem odd that a highly sexist society
like the one of Game of Thrones would have
languages where sex roles were not clearly
 marked, but languages are not always perfect
vehicles for a culture. Random change can
leave them with too many words for one
concept, and not enough for another. In this
way, the flawed nature of language reflects
 the foibles of flawed humans and the
imperfect worlds they strive to create.
Adaptado de: . Acesso em: 21 nov. 2017.
Considere as possibilidades de reescrita do segmento methodically learning it is key to her rise (l. 44).
I - it is key to her rise methodically learning
II - to learn methodically is key to her rise
III- learning it methodically is key to her rise
Quais poderiam substituir o segmento destacado, sem prejuízo do sentido original e da correção gramatical?
Questão 12 151595FMP 2017
The brain controls all the body’s functions – from
consciousness and heart rate to thinking, memory
and emotion. It is the most complex thing we know of,
and the gaps in our knowledge about how it works are
vast. Neuroscientists have the daunting job of making
sense of this complicated organ – to provide insights
into our minds and behaviour and to find ways to
tackle debilitating brain diseases and injuries. Brain
injuries can occur in many ways, such as through
accidents, stroke or infections. The rehabilitation
group at the Medical Research Council Cognition
and Brain Sciences Unit in Cambridge specialises
in helping people with brain injuries to compensate
for cognitive problems and to cope with everyday life.
Its work includes developing new ways to measure
the problems faced by people with brain injuries and
developing new treatments. The scientists are also
interested in finding out more about how people
recover from brain injury and related memory loss.
The brain stem controls our core body functions –
the things our body must do unconsciously to keep us
alive, such as altering our heart beat and regulating
our blood pressure and body temperature. It also
controls functions such as alertness, swallowing,
digestion and breathing.
Consciousness is part of what makes each of us
unique. It encompasses many of our ideas, thoughts,
feelings, plans and memories. Conscious thought is
different from the unconscious workings of the brain
– which enable us to breathe, walk and talk and our
hearts to beat automatically. There are two aspects to
consciousness: awareness and wakefulness.
— Awareness refers to our internal, subjective
experience. It includes self awareness – the ability to
understand that you exist, as an individual, separate
from other people and with private thoughts. It also
includes awareness of the relationship between
oneself and one’s environment through use of our
senses and by thinking about ideas and acting upon
them using judgement.
— Wakefulness refers to different levels of
conscious awareness. Each day we experience a
spectrum of wakefulness, from full attentiveness, such
as if we are involved in an interesting conversation,
through inattentiveness, drowsiness and normal
sleep. Following some types of brain injury or during
anaesthesia people can’t be woken: they have a lower
level of wakefulness. Brain death lies at the far end of
These two aspects of consciousness normally go
hand-in-hand; we don’t expect to have an interesting
conversation with someone who is asleep. However,
we can possess awareness when we are asleep, for
example when we dream.
Where does consciousness come from?
Scientists have amassed much evidence linking
different aspects of consciousness to our brain. We
now know that consciousness requires many parts of
the brain to work together. Parts of the cerebral cortex
act together to produce our thoughts and experiences.
A functioning thalamus is also required to produce
wakefulness – we know this because if a part of the
thalamus called the centromedian nucleus becomes
damaged, we become unconscious.
Unconsciousness can also be caused by
anaesthesia, or changes to the body’s internal
environment such as a rise or drop in core body
temperature or a lack of oxygen. A prolonged period
of unconsciousness is known as a coma. Sometimes,
after a severe brain injury, a person can enter a
vegetative state (VS). Unlike coma patients, VS
patients show normal wake/sleep cycles, but even
when they are awake they show no external sign of
awareness. When all electrical activity in the brain
stops irreversibly, this is known as brain death.
Scientists at the MRC Cognition and Brain
Sciences Unit in Cambridge study patients with
disorders of consciousness. Their work recently
revealed that a woman who was diagnosed as
being in a persistent vegetative state following
a car accident was aware of her surroundings.
Working with colleagues in Belgium, the scientists
used functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI) to map the woman’s brain activity. She was
physically unresponsive and fulfilled all the criteria
for a diagnosis of vegetative state according to
international guidelines. But scans showed that her
brain responded to speech. Her brain also actively
processed the meaning of sentences, becoming
more active when she heard sentences containing
words with several meanings, like ‘rain’ and ‘reign’.
When asked to imagine playing tennis or moving
around her home, brain scans showed that the
woman could do this, activating various areas of her
brain in the same way as healthy volunteers. “These
are startling results. They confirm that, despite the
diagnosis of vegetative state, this patient retained
the ability to understand spoken commands and
to respond to them through her brain activity,” said
one of the researchers. “Her decision to work with
us represents a clear act of intent which confirmed
beyond any doubt that she was consciously aware of
herself and her surroundings.”
Doctors use different levels of sedation to reduce
people’s awareness of their bodies and surroundings.
For example, high levels of anaesthetic drugs cause
general anaesthesia: a complete loss of consciousness.
Another team of scientists at the MRC Cognition and
Brain Sciences Unit used fMRI to study how sedation
affects the brain’s processing of speech. Working with
researchers at the Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre in
Cambridge, they found that during heavy sedation,
volunteers’ brains still responded to the sounds of
speech but they were unable to process or remember
it. The findings have important implications for the care
of patients undergoing general anaesthesia or coming
out of a coma.
Available at: <http://www.mrc.ac.uk/publications/browse/the-brain-mrc- -research-for-lifelong-health/>. Retrieved on: 28 June 2016. Adapted.
In the text fragment “... specialises in helping people with brain injuries to compensate for cognitive problems and to cope with everyday life” (lines 12-14), the words injuries and compensate for can be respectively replaced, without change in meaning, by the following pair of words