Questões de Inglês - Grammar
Questão 90 1337279UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2019/1
T E X T
Now, according to an annual survey
by the Babson Survey Research Group and
the Online Learning Consortium, more than
6.3 million students took at least one
 distance education course in the Fall 2016
semester (the most recent academic year
for which data is available). That’s 31.6
percent of all higher education
enrollments, according to the study, and
 about half of them were taking all of their
Many of these students are traditional
age. But for adult students (generally
defined as those 25 and over, working full
 time jobs or with parenting
responsibilities) online education is a
particularly attractive option. Citing several
studies, Louis Soares, chief learning and
innovation officer for the American Council
 on Education, says that about a third of all
adult students — roughly 13 million — are
pursuing advanced degrees online.
“I think it has given adult students
more opportunities,” Mr. Soares said. “If
 done correctly, online education can create
a robust learning experience.”
Research has shown that students can
learn as well online as they can in a face to
face classroom, according to Jovita Ross
 Gordon, a professor at Texas State
“In terms of pros and cons, it offers
great convenience and access for
populations who might not otherwise have
 it,” said Professor Ross-Gordon, an expert
on adult education. “But a certain degree
of self-direction is required. And it can be
isolating for some folks.”
The vast majority of colleges and
 universities in the United States offer at
least some online classes, but there are
still those who question its legitimacy and
also the quality of for-profit colleges whose
curriculum is offered solely online.
 Walden University, where Mr. Haynes
is earning his doctoral degree, is one such
institution. He said that he researched the
school through the V.A. and other sources,
and heard positive reports from a friend
 who was also pursuing his doctorate in
business administration at Walden, which
Mr. Haynes learned was accredited by the
Accreditation Council for Business Schools.
For Manda Gibson, online education is
 the preferred mode of learning. “I love it,”
said Ms. Gibson, 45, the mother of four,
who works full-time as an instructional
designer at Simpson College in Indianola,
Iowa. Ms. Gibson is pursuing her master’s
 in business administration online with
Colorado State University-Global Campus,
and before that earned a bachelor of arts
in management, taking mostly online
classes, at Simpson.
 “When I sit in a regular class, my
mind wanders,” she says. “`Did I do this
for my kids?’ ‘What am I making for dinner
tonight?’ When I do online, I can say, ‘this
hour is my hour.’”
 But she says, with the flexibility of
online education comes responsibility. “You
have to take it seriously,” she said. “Some
people think online classes are easier. I
think it’s actually more work. Because you
 might have to spend more time with the
Time is a commodity that Mr. Haynes,
like many adult learners, has little of. He
and his wife — Sgt. Chelsea Aiko Haynes
 of the Army — have six children, ranging
in age from 1 to 17. He is also active with
the Semper Fi Fund, a nonprofit
organization that provides financial
assistance for catastrophically injured
 servicemen and women. But most days,
after the children are off to school and his
wife is at her job at the Pentagon, he sits
down in the living room with his MacBook
Air and gets ready to learn. “I open the
 blinds to get some natural sunlight in,” he
said. “The TV’s off, the phone’s on vibrate.
And I commit myself fully to my studies.”
Here are some tips for success in
online education for adult learners, from
 Jeremy Haynes and Manda Gibson, two
students who have flourished in this
learning environment, and from George
Haber, an adjunct professor at Vaughn
College in Queens, and a veteran of over
 25 years of teaching online.
Set aside specific time periods when
you can do required reading or writing and
stick to the schedule, whether it’s an hour
a night three nights a week; Saturday or
 Sunday morning; or some combination.
Get acquainted with your academic
adviser from the start, as he or she is your
lifeline for anything at the institution.
Choose a subject for your first
 online class that you’re interested in, if
possible. You will be more likely to become
engaged in the material and learn the
Ask questions and reach out for help
 early. Don’t get frustrated if you don’t
understand something; a quality online
program will not only have self-help
tutorials, but also good student services to
help with the details.
 Take part in any online discussions
or forums. Your lack of participation will be
easily noted by the instructor.
In the sentence “He said that he researched the school through the V.A. and other sources” there is a/an
Questão 8 201857UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2018
Pope Francis disappoints Rohingya by failing to condemn persecution
 As the crowds trickled out of the
Yangon sports ground where Pope Francis
delivered his first public mass before tens of
thousands of people, Khin Maung Myint, a
 Rohingya activist, sat on the sidelines. He
was disappointed. Not in Francis, but in the
advisers who appear to have dissuaded the
pontiff from bringing up the plight of the
Rohingya people. “Rohingya are not the
 ones who lost their dignity, but the people
who silence the pope’s expression,” he said.
“Those who pushed the pope not to use the
word Rohingya, they are the ones who lost
 Francis is nearing the end of a
four-day visit to Myanmar, previously
known as Burma, in which he has not
publicly spoken about the persecuted
Muslim minority, more than 620,000 of
 whom have fled to Bangladesh in recent
months, escaping what western leaders are
calling ethnic cleansing.
Among the guests in the VIP
section, where a gazebo provided protection
 from the hot Myanmar sun, was Aye Ne
Win, the grandson of the country’s first
dictator who attracted public derision
recently after he dressed up as the pope for
Halloween. Beside him, in a black veil, sat a
 beauty queen who has described the
Rohingya in a YouTube video as “harbingers
of terror and violence”.
In his homily on Wednesday, the
pope talked about the need for forgiveness
 and ignoring the desire for revenge, but
declined to reference violence meted out
against the Rohingya, a campaign allegedly
marked by gang-rape, massacres and
arson. “We think that healing can come
 from anger or revenge,” Francis said,
speaking of the many “wounded” people in
Myanmar. “Yet the way of revenge is not
the way of Jesus,” he said. It was his
second public address in Myanmar, coming
 after he shared a stage with the state
counsellor, Aung San Suu Kyi, on Tuesday,
telling an audience of diplomats and
journalists that all of Myanmar’s religious
and minority ethnic groups – “none
 excluded” – should be respected.
Both speeches have fallen short of
what many expected from the pope, whose
advocacy for refugees has been a
benchmark of his papacy. He has previously
 referred to “our Rohingya brothers and
sisters”. At a press conference in Yangon on
Wednesday night, papal spokesman Greg
Burke said the moral authority of the Pope
“still stands”. “You can criticize what is said
 or not said but the Pope is not going to lose
any moral authority on this question here,”
The Rohingya have suffered
decades of persecution in Myanmar, where
 their freedoms have been slowly eroded and
tens of thousands are confined to
internment camps. They are widely deemed
illegal immigrants from Bangladesh and
labelled “Bengalis”. “For years the
 international community has towed the
government of Myanmar’s line, refusing to
say ‘Rohingya’ for fear of doing harm,” said
David Baulk, a Myanmar researcher for
Fortify Rights. “There should be nothing
 controversial about the pope identifying
people by the name they want.”
Whether or not the pope should
address the crisis has been a matter of
debate within the Vatican since the visit was
 announced, according to a source familiar
with discussions. “There are probably a mix
of voices in the Vatican,” they said. “Those
who are old school diplomats for whom
caution is always their watchword and
 others who are a bit more bold.”
The most vocal was until recently
Charles Maung Bo, Myanmar’s first cardinal,
a powerful orator who has fiercely defended
the Rohingya and condemned “merchants of
 hatred” in the form of Buddhist
ultranationalists who have sanctioned the
Before this week’s visit he urged
the pope not to use the word, though he
 has made it clear he would have been
happy with a compromise phrase, according
to the source. “I think one factor in this was
almost certainly pressure from within the
church on him because he has been so
 outspoken until now and I think there would
have been an enormous amount of pressure
from other bishops,” the source said.
Who are the Rohingya?
At the press conference on
 Wednesday night, the split between the
bishops was apparent, with one saying
there was a lack of “reliable evidence” of
atrocities and was not sure what was going
on because he had not seen it himself.
 The silence is likely to appease
many Catholics in the country who either
share prejudices against the Rohingya or
are afraid of a nationalist backlash against
the 650,000-strong Catholic community in
Francis is scheduled to fly to
Dhaka in Bangladesh where he will meet
Rohingya refugees on Thursday. But for
some in Myanmar, the leader of the church
 has a moral obligation not to leave the
country without commenting on its most
After the mass, Father Thomas, a
Yangon priest, said he hoped the pope
 brought the matter up in closed-door
meetings this week with the army chief, Min
Aung Hlaing, and Aung San Suu Kyi.
“This is the main issue in Burma,”
The sentence “We think that healing can come from anger or revenge” (lines 39-40) has a(n)
Questão 100 205354UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2016/2
President Obama’s Speech in Hiroshima, Japan
 Seventy-one years ago, on a bright
cloudless morning, death fell from the sky and
the world was changed. A flash of light and a
wall of fire destroyed a city and demonstrated
 that mankind possessed the means to destroy
It is not the fact of war that sets
Hiroshima apart. Artifacts tell us that violent
conflict appeared with the very first man. Our
 early ancestors having learned to make blades
from flint and spears from wood used these
tools not just for hunting but against their
own kind. On every continent, the history of
civilization is filled with war, whether driven
 by scarcity of grain or hunger for gold, comp
elled by nationalist fervor or religious zeal.
Empires have risen and fallen. Peoples have
been subjugated and liberated. And at each
juncture, innocents have suffered, a countless
 toll, their names forgotten by time.
The world war that reached its brutal
end in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was fought
among the wealthiest and most powerful of
nations. Their civilizations had given the world
 great cities and magnificent art. Their thinkers
had advanced ideas of justice and harmony
and truth. And yet the war grew out of the
same base instinct for domination or conquest
that had caused conflicts among the simplest
 tribes, an old pattern amplified by new
capabilities and without new constraints.
In the image of a mushroom cloud that
rose into these skies, we are most starkly
reminded of humanity’s core contradiction.
 How the very spark that marks us as a
species, our thoughts, our imagination, our
language, our toolmaking, our ability to set
ourselves apart from nature and bend it to our
will — those very things also give us the
 capacity for unmatched destruction.
How often does material advancement
or social innovation blind us to this truth? How
easily we learn to justify violence in the name
of some higher cause.
 Every great religion promises a pathway
to love and peace and righteousness, and yet
no religion has been spared from believers
who have claimed their faith as a license to
 Nations arise telling a story that binds
people together in sacrifice and cooperation,
allowing for remarkable feats. But those same
stories have so often been used to oppress
and dehumanize those who are different.
 Science allows us to communicate
across the seas and fly above the clouds, to
cure disease and understand the cosmos, but
those same discoveries can be turned into
ever more efficient killing machines.
 The wars of the modern age teach us
this truth. Hiroshima teaches this truth.
Technological progress without an equivalent
progress in human institutions can doom us.
The scientific revolution that led to the
 splitting of an atom requires a moral
revolution as well.
Mere words cannot give voice to such
suffering. But we have a shared responsibility
to look directly into the eye of history and ask
 what we must do differently to curb such
Since that fateful day, we have made
choices that give us hope. The United States
and Japan have forged not only an alliance but
 a friendship that has won far more for our
people than we could ever claim through war.
The nations of Europe built a union that
replaced battlefields with bonds of commerce
and democracy. Oppressed people and nations
 won liberation. An international community
established institutions and treaties that work
to avoid war and aspire to restrict and roll
back and ultimately eliminate the existence of
 Still, every act of aggression between
nations, every act of terror and corruption and
cruelty and oppression that we see around the
world shows our work is never done. We may
not be able to eliminate man’s capacity to do
 evil, so nations and the alliances that we form
must possess the means to defend ourselves.
But among those nations like my own that
hold nuclear stockpiles, we must have the
courage to escape the logic of fear and pursue
 a world without them.
We may not realize this goal in my
lifetime, but persistent effort can roll back the
possibility of catastrophe. We can chart a
course that leads to the destruction of these
 stockpiles. We can stop the spread to new
nations and secure deadly materials from
And yet that is not enough. For we see
around the world today how even the crudest
 rifles and barrel bombs can serve up violence
on a terrible scale. We must change our mindset
about war itself. To prevent conflict
through diplomacy and strive to end conflicts
after they’ve begun. To see our growing
 interdependence as a cause for peaceful
cooperation and not violent competition. To
define our nations not by our capacity to
destroy but by what we build. And perhaps,
above all, we must reimagine our connection
 to one another as members of one human
For this, too, is what makes our species
unique. We’re not bound by genetic code to
repeat the mistakes of the past. We can learn.
 We can choose. We can tell our children a
different story, one that describes a common
humanity, one that makes war less likely and
cruelty less easily accepted.
My own nation’s story began with
 simple words: All men are created equal and
endowed by our creator with certain
unalienable rights including life, liberty and
the pursuit of happiness. Realizing that ideal
has never been easy, even within our own
 borders, even among our own citizens. But
staying true to that story is worth the effort. It
is an ideal to be strived for, an ideal that
extends across continents and across oceans.
The irreducible worth of every person, the
 insistence that every life is precious, the
radical and necessary notion that we are part
of a single human family — that is the story
that we all must tell.
Ordinary people understand this, I
 think. They do not want more war. They
would rather that the wonders of science be
focused on improving life and not eliminating
it. When the choices made by nations, when
the choices made by leaders, reflect this
 simple wisdom, then the lesson of Hiroshima
The world was forever changed here,
but today the children of this city will go
through their day in peace. What a precious
 thing that is. It is worth protecting, and then
extending to every child. That is a future we
can choose, a future in which Hiroshima and
Nagasaki are known not as the dawn of
atomic warfare but as the start of our own
 moral awakening.
The sentences “Artifacts tell us that violent conflict appeared with the very first man” (lines 8-9) and “A flash of light and a wall of fire destroyed a city and demonstrated that mankind possessed the means to destroy itself” (lines 03-06) respectively contain a/an
Questão 92 209735UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2014
BRASÍLIA — Brazil’s highest court has long viewed itself as a bastion of manners and formality. Justices call one another “Your Excellency,” dress in billowing robes and wrap each utterance in grandiloquence, as if little had changed from the era when marquises and dukes held sway from their vast plantations.
In one televised feud, Mr. Barbosa questioned another justice about whether he would even be on the court had he not been appointed by his cousin, a former president impeached in 1992. With another justice, Mr. Barbosa rebuked him over what the chief justice considered his condescending tone, telling him he was not his “capanga,” a term describing a hired thug.
In one of his most scathing comments, Mr. Barbosa, the high court’s first and only black justice, took on the entire legal system of Brazil — where it is still remarkably rare for politicians to ever spend time in prison, even after being convicted of crimes — contending that the mentality of judges was “conservative, pro-status-quo and pro-impunity.”
“I have a temperament that doesn’t adapt well to politics,” Mr. Barbosa, 58, said in a recent interview in his quarters here in the Supreme Federal Tribunal, a modernist landmark designed by the architect Oscar Niemeyer. “It’s because I speak my mind so much.”
His acknowledged lack of tact notwithstanding, he is the driving force behind a series of socially liberal and establishment-shaking rulings, turning Brazil’s highest court — and him in particular — into a newfound political power and the subject of popular fascination.
The court’s recent rulings include a unanimous decision upholding the University of Brasília’s admissions policies aimed at increasing the number of black and indigenous students, opening the way for one of the Western Hemisphere’s most sweeping affirmative action laws for higher education.
In another move, Mr. Barbosa used his sway as chief justice and president of the panel overseeing Brazil’s judiciary to effectively legalize same-sex marriage across the country. And in an anticorruption crusade, he is overseeing the precedent-setting trial of senior political figures in the governing Workers Party for their roles in a vast vote-buying scheme.
Ascending to Brazil’s high court, much less pushing the institution to assert its independence, long seemed out of reach for Mr. Barbosa, the eldest of eight children raised in Paracatu, an impoverished city in Minas Gerais State, where his father worked as a bricklayer.
But his prominence — not just on the court, but in the streets as well — is so well established that masks with his face were sold for Carnival, amateur musicians have composed songs about his handling of the corruption trial and posted them on YouTube, and demonstrators during the huge street protests that shook the nation this year told pollsters that Mr. Barbosa was one of their top choices for president in next year’s elections.
While the protests have subsided since their height in June, the political tumult they set off persists. The race for president, once considered a shoo-in for the incumbent, Dilma Rousseff, is now up in the air, with Mr. Barbosa — who is now so much in the public eye that gossip columnists are following his romance with a woman in her 20s — repeatedly saying he will not run. “I’m not a candidate for anything,” he says.
But the same public glare that has turned him into a celebrity has singed him as well. While he has won widespread admiration for his guidance of the high court, Mr. Barbosa, like almost every other prominent political figure in Brazil, has recently come under scrutiny. And for someone accustomed to criticizing the so-called supersalaries awarded to some members of Brazil’s legal system, the revelations have put Mr. Barbosa on the defensive.
One report in the Brazilian news media described how he received about $180,000 in payments for untaken leaves of absence during his 19 years as a public prosecutor. (Such payments are common in some areas of Brazil’s large public bureaucracy.) Another noted that he bought an apartment in Miami through a limited liability company, suggesting an effort to pay less taxes on the property. In statements, Mr. Barbosa contends that he has done nothing wrong.
In a country where a majority of people now define themselves as black or of mixed race — but where blacks remain remarkably rare in the highest echelons of political institutions and corporations — Mr. Barbosa’s trajectory and abrupt manner have elicited both widespread admiration and a fair amount of resistance.
As a teenager, Mr. Barbosa moved to the capital, Brasília, finding work as a janitor in a courtroom. Against the odds, he got into the University of Brasília, the only black student in its law program at the time. Wanting to see the world, he later won admission into Brazil’s diplomatic service, which promptly sent him to Helsinki, the Finnish capital on the shore of the Baltic Sea.
Sensing that he would not advance much in the diplomatic service, which he has called “one of the most discriminatory institutions of Brazil,” Mr. Barbosa opted for a career as a prosecutor. He alternated between legal investigations in Brazil and studies abroad, gaining fluency in English, French and German, and earning a doctorate in law at Pantheon-Assas University in Paris.
Fascinated by the legal systems of other countries, Mr. Barbosa wrote a book on affirmative action in the United States. He still voices his admiration for figures like Thurgood Marshall, the first black Supreme Court justice in the United States, and William J. Brennan Jr., who for years embodied the court’s liberal vision, clearly drawing inspiration from them as he pushed Brazil’s high court toward socially liberal rulings.
Still, no decision has thrust Mr. Barbosa into Brazil’s public imagination as much as his handling of the trial of political operatives, legislators and bankers found guilty in a labyrinthine corruption scandal called the mensalão, or big monthly allowance, after the regular payments made to lawmakers in exchange for their votes.
Last November, at Mr. Barbosa’s urging, the high court sentenced some of the most powerful figures in the governing Workers Party to years in prison for their crimes in the scheme, including bribery and unlawful conspiracy, jolting a political system in which impunity for politicians has been the norm.
Now the mensalão trial is entering what could be its final phases, and Mr. Barbosa has at times been visibly exasperated that defendants who have already been found guilty and sentenced have managed to avoid hard jail time. He has clashed with other justices over their consideration of a rare legal procedure in which appeals over close votes at the high court are examined.
Losing his patience with one prominent justice, Ricardo Lewandowski, who tried to absolve some defendants of certain crimes, Mr. Barbosa publicly accused him this month of “chicanery” by using legalese to prop up certain positions. An outcry ensued among some who could not stomach Mr. Barbosa’s talking to a fellow justice like that. “Who does Justice Joaquim Barbosa think he is?” asked Ricardo Noblat, a columnist for the newspaper O Globo, questioning whether Mr. Barbosa was qualified to preside over the court. “What powers does he think he has just because he’s sitting in the chair of the chief justice of the Supreme Federal Tribunal?”
Mr. Barbosa did not apologize. In the interview, he said some tension was necessary for the court to function properly. “It was always like this,” he said, contending that arguments are now just easier to see because the court’s proceedings are televised.
Linking the court’s work to the recent wave of protests, he explained that he strongly disagreed with the violence of some demonstrators, but he also said he believed that the street movements were “a sign of democracy’s exuberance.”
“People don’t want to passively stand by and observe these arrangements of the elite, which were always the Brazilian tradition,” he said.
In the sentences “He still voices his admiration for figures like Thurgood Marshall, the first black Supreme Court justice in the United States, and William J. Brennan Jr., who for years embodied the court’s liberal vision,” “he later won admission into Brazil’s diplomatic service, which promptly sent him to Helsinki,” and “But the same public glare that has turned him into a celebrity has singed him as well,” the relative clauses in each one are, respectively, classified as
Questão 90 215988UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2013
The need to constantly adapt is the new reality for many workers, well beyond the information technology business. Car mechanics, librarians, doctors, Hollywood special effects designers — virtually everyone whose job is touched by computing — are being forced to find new, more efficient ways to learn as retooling becomes increasingly important not just to change careers, but simply to stay competitive on their chosen path.
Going back to school for months or years is not realistic for many workers, who are often left to figure out for themselves what new skills will make them more valuable, or just keep them from obsolescence. In their quest to occupy a useful niche, they are turning to bite-size instructional videos, peer-to-peer forums and virtual college courses.
Lynda Gratton, a professor of management practice at the London Business School, has coined a term for this necessity: “serial mastery.”
“You can’t expect that what you’ve become a master in will keep you valuable throughout the whole of your career, and you want to add to that the fact that most people are now going to be working into their 70s,” she said, adding that workers must try to choose specialties that cannot be outsourced or automated. “Being a generalist is, in my view, very unwise. Your major competitor is Wikipedia or Google.”
Businesses have responded by pouring more money into training, even in the current economic doldrums, according to several measures. They have experimented by paying employees to share their expertise in internal social networks, creating video games that teach and, human resources consultants say, enticing employees with tuition help even if they leave the company.
Individuals have also shouldered a lot of responsibility for their own upgrades. Lynda.com, which charges $25 a month for access to training videos on topics like the latest version of Photoshop, says its base of individual customers has been growing 42 percent a year since 2008. Online universities like Udacity and Coursera are on pace to double in size in a year, according to Josh Bersin of Bersin & Associates, a consulting firm that specializes in learning and talent management. The number of doctors participating in continuing education programs has more than doubled in the last decade, with the vast majority of the growth stemming from the increased popularity of Internet-based activities, according to the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education in Chicago.
The struggle is not just to keep up, but to anticipate a future of rapid change. When the AshevilleBuncombe Technical Community College in North Carolina wanted to start a program for developing smartphone and tablet apps, the faculty had to consider the name carefully. “We had this title Mobile Applications, and then we realized that it may not be apps in two years, it may be something else,” said Pamela Silvers, the chairwoman of the business computer technologies department. “So we changed it to Mobile Development.”
As the metadata and digital archivist at Emory University, Elizabeth Russey Roke, 35, has had to keep up with evolving standards that help different databases share information, learn how to archive “born digital” materials, and use computers to bring literary and social connections among different collections to life. The bulk of her learning has been on the job, supplemented by the occasional course or videos on Lynda.com.
“For me, it’s easier to learn something in the classroom than it is on my own,” she said. “But I can’t exactly afford another three years of library school.”
Rapid change is a challenge for traditional universities; textbooks and even journals often lag too far behind the curve to be of help, said Kunal Mehta, a Ph.D. student in bioengineering at Stanford University. His field is so new, and changing so rapidly, he said, that there is little consensus on established practices or necessary skills. “It’s more difficult to know what we should learn,” he said. “We have advisers that we work with, but a lot of times they don’t know any better than us what’s going to happen in the future.”
Instead, Mr. Mehta, 26, spends a lot of time comparing notes with others in his field, just as many professionals turn to their peers to help them stay current. The International Automotive Technicians Network, where mechanics pay $15 a month to trade tips on repairs, has more than 75,000 active users today, up from 48,000 in 2006, said Scott Brown, the president.
In an economy where new, specialized knowledge is worth so much, it may seem anticompetitive to share expertise. But many professionals say they don’t see it that way.
“We’re scattered all over the country, Australia, New Zealand, the U.K., so it never really bothered us that we were sharing the secrets of what we do,” said Bill Moss, whose repair shop in Warrenton, Va., specializes in European cars, and who is a frequent user of peer-to-peer forums.
Mr. Moss, 55, said technological advances and proprietary diagnostic tools had forced many garages to specialize. Ten years ago, if his business had hit a slow patch, he said, he would have been quicker to broaden his repertory. “I might have looked at other brands and said, ‘These cars aren’t so bad.’ That’s much harder to do now, based on technology and equipment requirements.” His training budget is about $4,000 a year for each repair technician.
Learning curves are not always driven by technology. Managers have to deal with different cultures, different time zones and different generations as well as changing attitudes. As medical director of the Reproductive Science Center of New England, Dr. Samuel C. Pang has used patient focus groups and sensitivity training to help the staff adjust to treating lesbian couples, gay male couples, and transgendered couples who want to have children. This has given the clinic a competitive advantage.
“We have had several male couples and lesbian couples come to our program from our competitors’ program because they said they didn’t feel comfortable there,” Dr. Pang said.
On top of that, he has to master constantly evolving technology. “The amount of information that I learned in medical school is minuscule,” he said, “compared to what is out there now.”
In the sentences “The amount of information that I learned in medical school is minuscule,” and “Bersin & Associates is a consulting firm that specializes in learning and talent management.”, the parts in italics are, respectively, a
Questão 88 229465UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2012
T E X T
Language is forever changing – and forms such as tweets and text messages are no less valid than any textbook version, says the linguist David Crystal, whose latest book encourages children to engage with the possibilities of their lingua franca.
Were the English language ever to need an official guardian, Professor David Crystal certainly looks the part. But the professor would, I suspect, quickly shrug off such a custodial title – not out of modesty, but principle. Though many endangered languages need their champions, he would say, English does not require a guardian; it is vibrant and evolving and can fend for itself.
Crystal’s A Little Book of Language is the latest work of a prolific career. He already has more than 100 books to his name; some are academic but many are for the general inquisitive reader, including By Hook or by Crook: A Journey in Search of English and Shakespeare's Words, which was co-authored by his son, Ben.
For the Crystals, linguistics is clearly a family affair. In the jaunty early chapters of A Little Book of Language, Crystal notes how, when his four children were young, he would study them."We're talking the 1960s, when the study of linguistics had hardly begun – people did not know, in a scientific way, how you developed language," he recalls. "Several of us linguists at that time would record our own kids, just to get some data. There was some literature on it then, but no day-by-day, blow-by-blow examples. I recorded all my children over the years in some shape or form. It's what linguists do. You don't talk to a linguist without having what you say taken down and used in evidence against you at some point in time."
Something must have rubbed off. Though his elder two children, Steven and Sue, eschewed academia, his daughter Lucy took up copywriting and his son Ben, an actor, is now following his father. "His book Shakespeare on Toast was a runaway hit – I wish I'd written it!" says Crystal, before rapidly, and self-effacingly, adding: "But I couldn't have – because it was so cool and modern and so street in its approach to Shakespeare. He has examples of hip-hop Shakespearians and I would never have dared put any of that stuff into one of my books."
A Little Book of Language is a simple history of all language, taking in phonetics, development, social uses, the internet, endangered languages and a touch of literature.
This all sounds very innocent, but books for children can be a contentious issue. Language, as much as history, is part of a national identity and cannot escape contemporary debates. And since Crystal began his academic career in the early 1960s, there have been dramatic shifts in how the English language is taught. "The ethos of 50 years ago was that there was one kind of English that was right and everything else was wrong; one kind of access that was right and everything else was inferior," he says. "Then nobody touched language for two generations. When it gradually came back in, we didn't want to go back to what we did in the 1950s. There's a new kind of ethos now."
What has replaced it is something far more fluid – descriptive rather than prescriptive, as the terminology goes. In schools, appropriateness has replaced the principle of correctness. "Now, one looks at all varieties of language and asks why they are used, says Crystal. "We are rearing a generation of kids who are more equitable and more understanding about the existence of language variety and why it is there."
This doesn't sit easy with the traditionalists, of whom there are still many. His clearest example is the belief that text messaging is destroying children's ability to spell. "It's all nonsense, but people believe it."
He addressed this in his book Txtng: the Gr8 Db8, published three years ago, in which he found that "txt speak" accounted for barely 10 per cent of the contents of the messages exchanged, and noted that abbreviations have always been part of the English language. Having solved that argument with some decent data, he tells me that he's now moving on to Twitter.
"On Twitter [which limits each written entry to 140 characters], you don't get the range of texting abbreviations you get in text messaging. It's a more sophisticated kind of communicative medium. You get semantic threads running through it. When you start counting thousands and thousands of messages, you suddenly realise that on the whole it's a new art form in the making."
The breadth of the internet means that language is morphing not just on grocers' signs and in school playgrounds, but on a far more fundamental level.
"All these different genres – instant messaging, blogging, chatrooms, virtual worlds – have evolved different sets of communicative strategies, which means that you can look at the language and say, 'That must be an example of a chatroom, that must be an example of a tweet,' and you can predict it."
Becoming involved in bigger arguments seems to be an occupational hazard for a linguist. Whether it be education, politics or neuroscience, we all have a vested interest in the implications of language. Our conversation turns to the recent news of a man who had been lying in a vegetative state for seven years before doctors managed to establish basic communication by scanning his brainwaves. "We are moving fast in a direction where you will be able to see what people are saying," says Crystal, optimistically. "We've got to the stage where you can see the complexity of language processing. We're not at the stage yet of being able to see clearly individual sentence patterns and words, but it's not long off."
Surely this has huge implications, not least for personal liberties? "It is the case that virtually every language issue resolves into a social or political or psychological issue," Crystal reminds me. "Language has no independent existence apart from the people who use it. It is not an end in itself; it is a means to an end of understanding who you are and what society is like. At which point, you know that a linguist has to bow out and say, 'This is bigger than me.'"
By Joy Lo Dico 14 March 2010 http://www.independent.co.uk
In the sentences “We are rearing a generation of kids who are more equitable and more understanding about the existence of language variety...” and “… some are academic but many are for the general inquisitive reader, including By Hook or by Crook: A Journey in Search of English and Shakespeare's Words, which was co-authored by his son, Ben.” one finds relative clauses that should be classified respectively as