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Questão 34 1290032CUSC 2020
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The fantastic appeal of fantasy
The fantasy genre starts where science ends
Few things can brighten up a dark morning in a Scottish seaside resort during an Atlantic storm. Yet while sheltering in a bookshop from the rain, I had a moment of sunny revelation. Stacked almost as high as my 11-year-old self were copies of The Lord of the Rings, with a cover illustration that promised mystery and magic. That chance discovery started a lifelong love of the fantasy genre1, both as reader and writer.
The fantasy genre has had more and more success, but today we’re in the middle of an unprecedented fantasy boom. Sales continue to rise and it is now the biggest genre in publishing. The more rational the world gets, with super-science all around us, the more we demand the irrational in our fiction.
Fantasy is not simply a case of swords2 and sorcery3. Yes, there is that by the shelf. But the genre is as broad as the imagination. The genre starts where science ends.
“In these modern times, where most of us sit at computers, fantasy books offer a chance to break out of mundane moments,” says Mark Newton, an editor with the genre. “People like to explore themes that go beyond the limited palette that literary fiction claims to offer.”
A search for the origins of fantasy will usually have academics muttering about Beowulf or Homer’s The Iliad, but they come from a time when all stories were fantasy: gods and monsters and supernatural artefacts with humanity caught in the middle. The first modern fantasy writer is usually considered to be William Morris, in the late 19th Century. But it was the early 20th Century where fantasy really started to gain status.
Fantasy fiction has always been about visionary ideas. You can get artful words in plenty of literary fiction, but being able to see beyond the boundaries4 of the world around us — now that’s a special skill.
I don’t write fantasy fiction simply to provide a trapdoor5 from the real world. For me, the genre is about the reality. But instead of coming up against it, fantasy maps the unconscious aspirations of our modern society through allegory in story- -forms as old as humanity. It’s about turning off the mobile phone and the computer and remembering who we are in the deepest parts of ourselves.
(Mark Chadbourn. www.telegraph.co.uk, 12.04.2008. Adaptado.)
1genre: gênero. Categoria distintiva de composição literária, como romance, poesia etc.
O trecho sublinhado em “the genre is as broad as the imagination” (3° parágrafo) expressa uma
Questão 16 1521625CESGRANRIO 2020
Is breakfast always a good idea?
By Philippa Roxby
Breakfast may be the most important meal of the day, but eating it won’t help you lose weight, research suggests
Those who ate breakfast consumed 260 more
 calories per day and gained 1 lb. (approximately 500
kilograms) more than those who skipped it, a review
of previous studies found. But experts say a healthy
breakfast can be a good source of calcium and fiber.
It has also been shown to improve concentration and
 attention levels, particularly in children. Breakfast
gives you energy, stops you snacking later in the day
and supplies essential nutrients – so we are told.
Its reputation as the nutritional backstop to our day
stems from observational studies showing a positive
 link between people eating breakfast and having a
But this new Australian research in the British
Medical Journal, which reviewed the results of 13
separate trials on breakfast eating, weight change
 and energy intake, found little evidence for those
views. The findings of the Monash University research
team suggest that skipping breakfast might in fact be
a good way to reduce total daily calorie intake. They
found that breakfast eaters consumed more calories
 overall and breakfast skippers did not have a greater
appetite in the afternoon. And they say caution is
needed when recommending breakfast for weight
loss in adults – because it could have the opposite
effect. However, the researchers added that there
 were limitations to their study. The participants in the
studies were only followed for short periods – from
between two and 16 weeks – and the difference in
calorie intake between breakfast eaters and skippers
was small. The researchers concluded that working
 out the long-term effect of skipping or adding breakfast
to diets still needed more research.
Calcium and fiber boost
Prof Kevin Whelan, dietetics expert and head
of King College of London’s nutritional sciences
 department, says we should not get too hung up on
calorie intake first thing in the morning. “This study
does not say breakfast is bad for the health,” he said.
“Breakfast is important for nutrient intake, such as
cereals and milk which are good for calcium and fiber.”
 But the BMJ research did not look at this aspect of
breakfast. “We are not talking about breakfast being
the cause of obesity,” he said.
Available at: https:www.bbc.com/news/health-47070173?intlink_ from_url. Retrieved on: Jan. 31, 2019. Adapted.
In the adapted fragment of the text, “the Monash University research found that the appetite of breakfast skippers was not greater than the appetite of breakfast eaters”, the words in bold indicate a(n)
Questão 11 1465584UEA - Geral 2019
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Wood wide web: trees’ social networks are mapped
Research has shown that beneath every forest and wood there is a complex underground web of roots, fungi and bacteria helping to connect trees and plants to one another. This subterranean social network, nearly 500 million years old, has become known as the “wood wide web”. Now, an international study has produced the first global map of the “mycorrhizal fungi networks” dominating this secretive world.
Using machine-learning, researchers from the Crowther Lab at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, and Stanford University in the US used the database of the Global Forest Initiative, which covers 1.2 million forest tree plots with 28,000 species, from more than 70 countries. Using millions of direct observations of trees and their symbiotic associations on the ground, the researchers could build models from the bottom up to visualise these fungal networks for the first time. Prof Thomas Crowther, one of the authors of the report, told the BBC, “It’s the first time that we’ve been able to understand the world beneath our feet, but at a global scale.”
The research reveals how important mycorrhizal networks are to limiting climate change — and how vulnerable they are to the effects of it. “Just like an Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the brain helps us to understand how the brain works, this global map of the fungi beneath the soil helps us to understand how global ecosystems work,” said Prof Crowther. “What we find is that certain types of microorganisms live in certain parts of the world, and by understanding that we can figure out how to restore different types of ecosystems and also how the climate is changing.” Losing chunks of the wood wide web could well increase “the feedback loop of warming temperatures and carbon emissions.”
Mycorrhizal fungi are those that form a symbiotic relationship with plants. There are two main groups of mycorrhizal fungi: arbuscular fungi (AM) that penetrate the host’s roots, and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) which surround the tree’s roots without penetrating them.
(Claire Marshall. www.bbc.com, 15.05.2019. Adaptado.)
O trecho do terceiro parágrafo “Just like an Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the brain helps us to understand how the brain works, this global map of the fungi beneath the soil helps us to understand how global ecosystems work” estabelece uma relação de
Questão 18 609080UERR 2019
Terrorist, Superman, feminist, messiah: Barack Obama's life as a cover star
He has appeared on more magazines than most supermodels. From Black Enterprise to Rolling Stone, the author of a new book traces the rise, fall – and legacy of the cover-star-in-chie
In October 2004, Barack Obama, then an Illinois state legislator, appeared on the cover of Black Enterprise, a popular African-American business monthly. It was his first-ever cover, and he shocked the magazine’s editors by proclaiming his intention to run for the United States Senate. They wondered if the young statesman was setting his hopes too high. Nevertheless, they ran the cover story with the prophetic headline: The next big thing in politics.
Cut to 2008, and Obama, having made it to the US Senate, now had his sights on the presidency. The experts said that America was not ready for an African-American leader; that white people wouldn’t vote for a non-white candidate or a man with a funny-sounding name, whose middle name is Hussein and who actually has Muslim relatives; and that even if they did, he would be assassinated before he saw out his first term.
After they were proved wrong and Obama was elected in November 2008, people went out in droves to buy newspapers and magazines with him on their covers, as commemorative keepsakes. His face was everywhere, providing print publishers with a bump to flagging sales. In a few short years, Obama had risen from obscurity to become the most famous person in the world.
(Excerpt from the site: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2017/sep/07/t errorist-superman-feminist-messiah-barack-obamas-lifeas-a-cover-star. Reaserched in September 2018).
In the quote: “Poverty is the worst form of violence”. Mahatma Ghandi. Check the CORRECT grammatical function of the word in bold.
Questão 59 1289605UVV 2018/1
In the statement e“The fatter they get, the thinner I look!” e the words in bold convey the idea of
Questão 15 211567FAMERP 2018
Can plants hear?
Flora may be able to detect the sounds of flowing water or munching insects
Pseudoscientific claims that music helps plants grow have been made for decades, despite evidence that is shaky at best. Yet new research suggests some flora may be capable of sensing sounds, such as the gurgle of water through a pipe or the buzzing of insects.
In a recent study, Monica Gagliano, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Western Australia, and her colleagues placed pea seedlings in pots shaped like an upside-down Y. One arm of each pot was placed in either a tray of water or a coiled plastic tube through which water flowed; the other arm had dry soil. The roots grew toward the arm of the pipe with the fluid, regardless of whether it was easily accessible or hidden inside the tubing. “They just knew the water was there, even if the only thing to detect was the sound of it flowing inside the pipe,” Gagliano says. Yet when the seedlings were given a choice between the water tube and some moistened soil, their roots favored the latter. She hypothesizes that these plants use sound waves to detect water at a distance but follow moisture gradients to home in on their target when it is closer.
The research, reported earlier this year in Oecologia, is not the first to suggest flora can detect and interpret sounds. A 2014 study showed the rock cress Arabidopsis can distinguish between caterpillar chewing sounds and wind vibrations – the plant produced more chemical toxins after “hearing” a recording of feeding insects. “We tend to underestimate plants because their responses are usually less visible to us. But leaves turn out to be extremely sensitive vibration detectors,” says lead study author Heidi M. Appel, an environmental scientist now at the University of Toledo.
(Marta Zaraska. www.scientificamerican.com, 17.05.2017.)
No trecho do terceiro parágrafo “The research, reported earlier”, o termo em destaque indica
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