Questão 34 1290032CUSC 2020
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The fantastic appeal of fantasy
The fantasy genre starts where science ends
Few things can brighten up a dark morning in a Scottish seaside resort during an Atlantic storm. Yet while sheltering in a bookshop from the rain, I had a moment of sunny revelation. Stacked almost as high as my 11-year-old self were copies of The Lord of the Rings, with a cover illustration that promised mystery and magic. That chance discovery started a lifelong love of the fantasy genre1, both as reader and writer.
The fantasy genre has had more and more success, but today we’re in the middle of an unprecedented fantasy boom. Sales continue to rise and it is now the biggest genre in publishing. The more rational the world gets, with super-science all around us, the more we demand the irrational in our fiction.
Fantasy is not simply a case of swords2 and sorcery3. Yes, there is that by the shelf. But the genre is as broad as the imagination. The genre starts where science ends.
“In these modern times, where most of us sit at computers, fantasy books offer a chance to break out of mundane moments,” says Mark Newton, an editor with the genre. “People like to explore themes that go beyond the limited palette that literary fiction claims to offer.”
A search for the origins of fantasy will usually have academics muttering about Beowulf or Homer’s The Iliad, but they come from a time when all stories were fantasy: gods and monsters and supernatural artefacts with humanity caught in the middle. The first modern fantasy writer is usually considered to be William Morris, in the late 19th Century. But it was the early 20th Century where fantasy really started to gain status.
Fantasy fiction has always been about visionary ideas. You can get artful words in plenty of literary fiction, but being able to see beyond the boundaries4 of the world around us — now that’s a special skill.
I don’t write fantasy fiction simply to provide a trapdoor5 from the real world. For me, the genre is about the reality. But instead of coming up against it, fantasy maps the unconscious aspirations of our modern society through allegory in story- -forms as old as humanity. It’s about turning off the mobile phone and the computer and remembering who we are in the deepest parts of ourselves.
(Mark Chadbourn. www.telegraph.co.uk, 12.04.2008. Adaptado.)
1genre: gênero. Categoria distintiva de composição literária, como romance, poesia etc.
O trecho sublinhado em “the genre is as broad as the imagination” (3° parágrafo) expressa uma
Questão 16 1521625CESGRANRIO 2020
Is breakfast always a good idea?
By Philippa Roxby
Breakfast may be the most important meal of the day, but eating it won’t help you lose weight, research suggests
Those who ate breakfast consumed 260 more
 calories per day and gained 1 lb. (approximately 500
kilograms) more than those who skipped it, a review
of previous studies found. But experts say a healthy
breakfast can be a good source of calcium and fiber.
It has also been shown to improve concentration and
 attention levels, particularly in children. Breakfast
gives you energy, stops you snacking later in the day
and supplies essential nutrients – so we are told.
Its reputation as the nutritional backstop to our day
stems from observational studies showing a positive
 link between people eating breakfast and having a
But this new Australian research in the British
Medical Journal, which reviewed the results of 13
separate trials on breakfast eating, weight change
 and energy intake, found little evidence for those
views. The findings of the Monash University research
team suggest that skipping breakfast might in fact be
a good way to reduce total daily calorie intake. They
found that breakfast eaters consumed more calories
 overall and breakfast skippers did not have a greater
appetite in the afternoon. And they say caution is
needed when recommending breakfast for weight
loss in adults – because it could have the opposite
effect. However, the researchers added that there
 were limitations to their study. The participants in the
studies were only followed for short periods – from
between two and 16 weeks – and the difference in
calorie intake between breakfast eaters and skippers
was small. The researchers concluded that working
 out the long-term effect of skipping or adding breakfast
to diets still needed more research.
Calcium and fiber boost
Prof Kevin Whelan, dietetics expert and head
of King College of London’s nutritional sciences
 department, says we should not get too hung up on
calorie intake first thing in the morning. “This study
does not say breakfast is bad for the health,” he said.
“Breakfast is important for nutrient intake, such as
cereals and milk which are good for calcium and fiber.”
 But the BMJ research did not look at this aspect of
breakfast. “We are not talking about breakfast being
the cause of obesity,” he said.
Available at: https:www.bbc.com/news/health-47070173?intlink_ from_url. Retrieved on: Jan. 31, 2019. Adapted.
In the adapted fragment of the text, “the Monash University research found that the appetite of breakfast skippers was not greater than the appetite of breakfast eaters”, the words in bold indicate a(n)
Questão 4 6370184Unioeste 1° Etapa Manhã 2020
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FROM PARIS TO BERLIN
Public transport is increasingly becoming one of the most crucial forms of transport in the world, with most major cities having a vast network connecting millions. But, for all their perks and uses, they are often plagued with technical issues, delays and overcrowding.
Now, researchers at the Polytechnic University of Turin have ranked the world’s largest networks to find which move quickest and to identify the most sluggish.
Berlin and Paris take gold and silver, respectively, in a top ten list dominated by European capital cities. Their average speed was found to be 6.2 and 5.8 km/h whereas Mexico City, languishing at the bottom of the list with a docile 2.4km/h.
Only Melbourne (ten) and New York (eight) break up the European monopoly when it comes to average travel velocity.
The study, published in Royal Society Open Science, found that London came out at number seven.
The English capital fell behind Berlin, Paris, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Athens and Prague. The top ten was rounded out by New York, Madrid and Melbourne.
The authors Indaco Biazzo, Bernardo Monechi and Vittorio Loreto write in the study: “In the last decades, the acceleration of urban growth has led to an unprecedented level of urban interactions and interdependence”.
“This situation calls for a significant effort among the scientific community to come up with engaging and meaningful visualisations and accessible scenario simulation engines”.
“The present paper gives a contribution in this direction by providing general methods to evaluate accessibility in cities based on public transportation data”.
Adapted from: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-7399879/European-capital-cities-dominate-list-worlds-FASTEST-public-transport-systems.html Last access: August, 29, 2019.
Qual alternativa abaixo contém um exemplo do uso do superlativo?
Questão 11 1465584UEA - Geral 2019
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Wood wide web: trees’ social networks are mapped
Research has shown that beneath every forest and wood there is a complex underground web of roots, fungi and bacteria helping to connect trees and plants to one another. This subterranean social network, nearly 500 million years old, has become known as the “wood wide web”. Now, an international study has produced the first global map of the “mycorrhizal fungi networks” dominating this secretive world.
Using machine-learning, researchers from the Crowther Lab at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, and Stanford University in the US used the database of the Global Forest Initiative, which covers 1.2 million forest tree plots with 28,000 species, from more than 70 countries. Using millions of direct observations of trees and their symbiotic associations on the ground, the researchers could build models from the bottom up to visualise these fungal networks for the first time. Prof Thomas Crowther, one of the authors of the report, told the BBC, “It’s the first time that we’ve been able to understand the world beneath our feet, but at a global scale.”
The research reveals how important mycorrhizal networks are to limiting climate change — and how vulnerable they are to the effects of it. “Just like an Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the brain helps us to understand how the brain works, this global map of the fungi beneath the soil helps us to understand how global ecosystems work,” said Prof Crowther. “What we find is that certain types of microorganisms live in certain parts of the world, and by understanding that we can figure out how to restore different types of ecosystems and also how the climate is changing.” Losing chunks of the wood wide web could well increase “the feedback loop of warming temperatures and carbon emissions.”
Mycorrhizal fungi are those that form a symbiotic relationship with plants. There are two main groups of mycorrhizal fungi: arbuscular fungi (AM) that penetrate the host’s roots, and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) which surround the tree’s roots without penetrating them.
(Claire Marshall. www.bbc.com, 15.05.2019. Adaptado.)
O trecho do terceiro parágrafo “Just like an Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the brain helps us to understand how the brain works, this global map of the fungi beneath the soil helps us to understand how global ecosystems work” estabelece uma relação de
Questão 12 2685679FCM PB 2019/2
TEXTO - Lung Cancer In Non Smoker
A group of respiratory medicine and public health experts are calling for lung cancer in never-smokers to be given greater recognition. Writing in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, they say that lung cancer in people who have never smoked is under recognised and presents a diagnostic challenge, particularly for GPs seeking to balance overinvestigation with early diagnosis and high quality care.
It is estimated that around 6,000 people in the UK who have never smoked die of lung cancer every year, greater than the numbers of people who die of cervical cancer (900), lymphoma (5,200), leukaemia (4,500) and ovarian cancer (4,200).
Major contributors to lung cancers in never-smokers include second-hand smoke, occupational carcinogen exposure and outdoor pollution. Globally, the use of solid fuels for indoor cooking and second-hand smoke exposure are important contributions to lung cancer in never-smokers and disproportionately affect women
Lead author, Professor Paul Cosford, Director for Health Protection & Medical Director, Public Health England, said: "This paper demonstrates an estimated 6,000 people who have never smoked die each year from lung cancer in the UK. This makes it, by itself, the eighth most common cause of cancer related death in the UK.
"For too long having lung cancer has only been thought of as a smoking related disease. This remains an important association but, as this this work shows, the scale of the challenge means there is a need to raise awareness with clinicians and policy makers of the other risk factors including indoor and outdoor air pollution.
"This is one reason why PHE published its review of the evidence and recommended specific actions local authorities can take to improve their air quality. By delivering on the promise of a clean air generation we can reduce the number of lung cancers among those who have never smoked."
Co-author Professor Mick Peake, clinical director of the Centre for Cancer Outcomes, University College London Hospitals Cancer Collaborative, said: "Despite advances in our understanding, most people who have never smoked do not believe they are at risk and often experience long delays in diagnosis, reducing their chances of receiving curative treatment."
Prof Peake added: "The stigma of smoking has been the major factor behind the lack of interest in, knowledge of and research into lung cancer. Therefore, in many ways, neversmokers who develop lung cancer are, as a result, disadvantaged.
"Drawing attention to the contribution of underlying risk factors to lung cancer in never-smokers presents opportunities to reinforce efforts to tackle other major public health challenges. For example, the impact of passive smoking and air pollution on lung cancers adds weight to the government's ambitions to improve air quality and the public, clinicians and policy makers must all be aware of this relationship
(Adapted from: www.sciencedaily.com)
Choose the correct grammatical class for the fragment on bold “greater than the numbers of people who die of cervical cancer (900)” on the second paragraph:
Questão 28 3640040EEAR 2019/2
Read the text to answer the question.
Back to School
For generations in the United States, a nineteenth century
invention known as the public school system was seen as
the best way to give students the knowledge and skills to
become nice citizens. Around the 1960s, experts began
 questioning the system, citing the need for new types of
schools to meet the changing demands of the twentieth
century. These reformers eventually won for parents a much
broader range of educational choices – including religious,
alternative, and charter schools and home schooling – but they
 also sparked a debate on teaching and learning that still
divides experts to this day.
Nunan, David - Listen in book 2, second edition.
The adjective form “the best” (line 3) and “nice” (line 4), underlined in the text, have as their comparative forms, respectively: