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Questão 16 1521625CESGRANRIO 2020
Is breakfast always a good idea?
By Philippa Roxby
Breakfast may be the most important meal of the day, but eating it won’t help you lose weight, research suggests
Those who ate breakfast consumed 260 more
 calories per day and gained 1 lb. (approximately 500
kilograms) more than those who skipped it, a review
of previous studies found. But experts say a healthy
breakfast can be a good source of calcium and fiber.
It has also been shown to improve concentration and
 attention levels, particularly in children. Breakfast
gives you energy, stops you snacking later in the day
and supplies essential nutrients – so we are told.
Its reputation as the nutritional backstop to our day
stems from observational studies showing a positive
 link between people eating breakfast and having a
But this new Australian research in the British
Medical Journal, which reviewed the results of 13
separate trials on breakfast eating, weight change
 and energy intake, found little evidence for those
views. The findings of the Monash University research
team suggest that skipping breakfast might in fact be
a good way to reduce total daily calorie intake. They
found that breakfast eaters consumed more calories
 overall and breakfast skippers did not have a greater
appetite in the afternoon. And they say caution is
needed when recommending breakfast for weight
loss in adults – because it could have the opposite
effect. However, the researchers added that there
 were limitations to their study. The participants in the
studies were only followed for short periods – from
between two and 16 weeks – and the difference in
calorie intake between breakfast eaters and skippers
was small. The researchers concluded that working
 out the long-term effect of skipping or adding breakfast
to diets still needed more research.
Calcium and fiber boost
Prof Kevin Whelan, dietetics expert and head
of King College of London’s nutritional sciences
 department, says we should not get too hung up on
calorie intake first thing in the morning. “This study
does not say breakfast is bad for the health,” he said.
“Breakfast is important for nutrient intake, such as
cereals and milk which are good for calcium and fiber.”
 But the BMJ research did not look at this aspect of
breakfast. “We are not talking about breakfast being
the cause of obesity,” he said.
Available at: https:www.bbc.com/news/health-47070173?intlink_ from_url. Retrieved on: Jan. 31, 2019. Adapted.
In the adapted fragment of the text, “the Monash University research found that the appetite of breakfast skippers was not greater than the appetite of breakfast eaters”, the words in bold indicate a(n)
Questão 11 1465584UEA - Geral 2019
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
Wood wide web: trees’ social networks are mapped
Research has shown that beneath every forest and wood there is a complex underground web of roots, fungi and bacteria helping to connect trees and plants to one another. This subterranean social network, nearly 500 million years old, has become known as the “wood wide web”. Now, an international study has produced the first global map of the “mycorrhizal fungi networks” dominating this secretive world.
Using machine-learning, researchers from the Crowther Lab at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, and Stanford University in the US used the database of the Global Forest Initiative, which covers 1.2 million forest tree plots with 28,000 species, from more than 70 countries. Using millions of direct observations of trees and their symbiotic associations on the ground, the researchers could build models from the bottom up to visualise these fungal networks for the first time. Prof Thomas Crowther, one of the authors of the report, told the BBC, “It’s the first time that we’ve been able to understand the world beneath our feet, but at a global scale.”
The research reveals how important mycorrhizal networks are to limiting climate change — and how vulnerable they are to the effects of it. “Just like an Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the brain helps us to understand how the brain works, this global map of the fungi beneath the soil helps us to understand how global ecosystems work,” said Prof Crowther. “What we find is that certain types of microorganisms live in certain parts of the world, and by understanding that we can figure out how to restore different types of ecosystems and also how the climate is changing.” Losing chunks of the wood wide web could well increase “the feedback loop of warming temperatures and carbon emissions.”
Mycorrhizal fungi are those that form a symbiotic relationship with plants. There are two main groups of mycorrhizal fungi: arbuscular fungi (AM) that penetrate the host’s roots, and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) which surround the tree’s roots without penetrating them.
(Claire Marshall. www.bbc.com, 15.05.2019. Adaptado.)
O trecho do terceiro parágrafo “Just like an Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the brain helps us to understand how the brain works, this global map of the fungi beneath the soil helps us to understand how global ecosystems work” estabelece uma relação de
Questão 59 1289605UVV 2018/1
In the statement e“The fatter they get, the thinner I look!” e the words in bold convey the idea of
Questão 15 211567FAMERP 2018
Can plants hear?
Flora may be able to detect the sounds of flowing water or munching insects
Pseudoscientific claims that music helps plants grow have been made for decades, despite evidence that is shaky at best. Yet new research suggests some flora may be capable of sensing sounds, such as the gurgle of water through a pipe or the buzzing of insects.
In a recent study, Monica Gagliano, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Western Australia, and her colleagues placed pea seedlings in pots shaped like an upside-down Y. One arm of each pot was placed in either a tray of water or a coiled plastic tube through which water flowed; the other arm had dry soil. The roots grew toward the arm of the pipe with the fluid, regardless of whether it was easily accessible or hidden inside the tubing. “They just knew the water was there, even if the only thing to detect was the sound of it flowing inside the pipe,” Gagliano says. Yet when the seedlings were given a choice between the water tube and some moistened soil, their roots favored the latter. She hypothesizes that these plants use sound waves to detect water at a distance but follow moisture gradients to home in on their target when it is closer.
The research, reported earlier this year in Oecologia, is not the first to suggest flora can detect and interpret sounds. A 2014 study showed the rock cress Arabidopsis can distinguish between caterpillar chewing sounds and wind vibrations – the plant produced more chemical toxins after “hearing” a recording of feeding insects. “We tend to underestimate plants because their responses are usually less visible to us. But leaves turn out to be extremely sensitive vibration detectors,” says lead study author Heidi M. Appel, an environmental scientist now at the University of Toledo.
(Marta Zaraska. www.scientificamerican.com, 17.05.2017.)
No trecho do terceiro parágrafo “The research, reported earlier”, o termo em destaque indica
Questão 54 1584989IFRR Superior 2016/1
TIME 100 ICONS
By Mezon Almellehan
April 16, 2015
Champion of education
I’M 16 years old and from Dara’a in Syria. I fled to Jordan with my Family two years ago.
Spending time with Malala Yousafzai made me stronger. I didn’t know her before meeting her in Za’atari camp last year, but I understand she suffered, and yet continues to fight for what she believes in – for rights of children and for their education. She is an inspiration for me.
When it comes to continuing our education as refugees, I am on the front lines with my friends, speaking to other girls throughout the camp on the importance of going to school. My mother and father are always encouraging me. I saw this in Malala too, and her close relationship with her mother and father.
I’ve always loved learning and education, but since I fled with my Family, these views have grown stronger. I have seen too much wrong to not use my voice. Malala has shown that education is crucial for laying a foundation for girls and boys to have secure lives.
I know no matter what I go through today, it will make me a stronger person for tomorrow. Rather than giving up, my friends and I will continue to think positively and try to make our community better. Girls need to learn to take care of themselves, because if they don’t, nobody will. Our lives are completely diferente now – we’ve gone from living in homes to surviving in tents in refugees camps. Education is the only way to regain our spirit and control over our lives.
I was so honored to be in Oslo to watch Malala be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. To see a Young woman recognized with such an award made me realize that yes, I can make a difference, and I have to continue to fight for what I believe in – that all girls and boys can bring change to our world.
Almellehan is an education activist and student. (fonte: http://time.com/3822637/malala-yousafzi-2015-time-100/ acessado dia 03/11/15 17:44)
Qual o equivalente em português para “stronger”, grifado no texto?
Questão 11 2717871FCM PB 2020/1
TEXTO – The Challenge of Identifying Sjogren’s Syndrome
Angelica Divinagracia, a 54-year-old fitness instructor in Los Angeles, woke one morning with her tongue literally stuck to the roof of her mouth. Though she normally drank lots of water, especially after strenuous workouts with clients, she thought her chronically dry mouth, was due to dehydration. That is, until an even more troublesome symptom — excruciating scratchy eye pain unrelieved by drops — prompted an immediate visit to her ophthalmologist. “Do you also have dry mouth?” the eye doctor asked. Given her response, he suspected an autoimmune disease called Sjogren’s syndrome, sent her for blood work and, based on the results, told her to see a rheumatologist. That doctor had 12 more vials of blood analyzed at six different laboratories to confirm the diagnosis of Sjogren’s (pronounced SHOW-grins). The disorder is named after Dr. Henrik Sjogren, a Swedish ophthalmologist who in 1933 described 19 women suffering from dry eyes and mouth.
This chronic and usually progressive syndrome attacks secretory tissues throughout the body, primarily, but not exclusively, salivary and lacrimal glands of the mouth and eyes, the respective sources of saliva and tears. It can occur as a primary disorder or secondary to another autoimmune condition like rheumatoid arthritis or scleroderma.
The primary form affects between three and 10 of every 10,000 people, and nine women for every one man, mostly around the time of menopause. Including people with secondary Sjogren’s doubles the prevalence. The cause or causes are not known, though genetic, environmental and hormonal factors are strong suspects and are likely to work in concert. The triggering factor for its expression is often a microbial infection.
Diagnosis can be challenging because the main symptoms — dry eyes and mouth, fatigue and limb pain — are common complaints associated with any number of health problems. Yet, Dr. Lindsey A. Criswell, a rheumatologist at the University of California, San Francisco, told me that few doctors are aware of a relatively simple test — an in-office biopsy of tiny salivary glands from the inner surface of the lip — that can be definitive for Sjogren’s. “Patients with Sjogren’s often have symptoms for years before being diagnosed,” Dr. Criswell said. Ms. Divinagracia, for example, had dry mouth for about three years and dry eyes for two years and had attributed her occasional limb pain and fatigue to her demanding workouts. “My eyes were sensitive to everything — bright light, wind, cold air, hot air,” she said. “I found myself wearing sunglasses in the house. I would wake up in the morning with my lids stuck to my eyeballs and feeling like there was glass in my eyes.”
Dr. Criswell said Ms. Divinagracia was fortunate to have a tuned-in ophthalmologist. “Sadly,” she said, “most doctors are narrowly focused on a particular organ. They don’t think outside their specialty, and patients may not mention other symptoms unless they’re asked. The manifestations of Sjogren’s are numerous and doctors generally are not familiar with them, which results in huge delays in diagnosis.”
A report Dr. Criswell published last year with Dr. Xavier Mariette in The New England Journal of Medicine listed possible manifestation of Sjogren’s in lymph nodes, lungs, kidneys, muscles, nervous system, skin and brain, as well as various glands and joints. Some patients experience constitutional symptoms like fever, involuntary weight loss or night sweats.
Since dental health requires saliva, Ms. Divinagracia was wisely advised by the rheumatologist to see her dentist, who told her to always brush after eating, floss twice a day, suck on sugar-free lozenges and drink water all day to reduce the risk of rampant dental decay and tooth loss.
For someone as active as she has been for decades, the bouts of fatigue that usually accompany Sjogren’s are especially hard to take. “I could sleep for eight hours and wake up feeling like I hadn’t slept at all,” she said. “Or sometimes the fatigue will hit in the afternoon when I’m supposed to be starting supper for the family.”
As life-disrupting as the syndrome can be, its worst possible consequence is the occurrence of B-cell lymphoma, a cancer of the immune system that afflicts 5 percent to10 percent of those with primary Sjogren’s, a risk 15 to 20 times higher than in the general population. Blood tests every year or two to check for lymphoma are recommended, especially for patients with severe disease, and swollen lymph nodes should be assessed without delay.
Ideally, patients are best managed by a medical team. Dr. R. Hal Scofield, a Sjogren’s specialist at Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, where patients are seen by a rheumatologist, dentist and eye doctor, runs one of the few multidisciplinary clinics in the country.
Ms. Divinagracia, who knows coordinated treatment can help to minimize symptoms and slow progression, said she’d have to travel from Los Angeles to San Francisco to get to a Sjogren’s clinic. However, she has taken a proactive approach to learn about the disease, reduce expenses and limit distressing side effects of treatment. She also joined a Sjogren’s support group through the Sjogren’s Syndrome Foundation.
“My list of medications is a mile long, and most have to be taken several times a day,” she said. One of the drugs prescribed, Restasis, is so expensive she got a prescription for a generic form available in Canada but not in the United States.
(Adapted from: www.www.nytimes.com )
Choose the correct grammatical class that the fragment “higher” fits best:
“...15 to 20 times higher than in the general population”.
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