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Questão 3 5321728EPCAR 2021
Directions: Answer question according to the text.
Many parents are concerned with their child’s
seemingly obsessive video game play. Fortnite, the
most recent gaming phenomenon, has taken the world
by storm and has parents asking if the shooter game is
 okay for kids. The short answer is yes, Fortnite is
generally fine. Furthermore, parents can breathe easier
knowing that research suggests gaming (on its own)
does not cause disorders like addiction.
However, there’s more to the story. A
 comprehensive answer to the question of whether video
games are prejudicial must take into account other
factors, and parents need to understand why kids play,
as well as when to worry and when to relax.
The word “addiction” gets tossed around quite
 a bit these days, but if it isn’t causing serious harm and
disorder to daily function, it isn’t an addiction. Parents
may worry that their kids are addicted, but if the children
can pull themselves away from a game to join the family
for a conversation over dinner and shows interest in
 other activities, like sports or socializing with friends,
then they are not addicted.
Generally, parents panic when their kid’s video
game playing comes at the expense of doing other
things, like studying or helping around the house. But
 let’s be honest, kids have been avoiding these activities
for ages. Equally true is the fact that parents have been
complaining about their unhelpful children well before the
first video game was plugged into its socket.
In fact, moderate video game play has been
 shown to be beneficial. A study conducted at Oxford by
Dr. Andrew Przybylski revealed that playing about one
hour per day improved psychological well-being, while
when taken to an extreme, playing over three hours per
day, was correlated with less well-being.
 The real question should be what is it about
the special attraction of gaming that makes it the
preferred pastime of so many millions of kids? What
makes it so difficult for even non-addicted kids to step
away from video games sometimes? The answer has to
 do with the way games address basic psychological
Fortnite, like any well-designed video game,
satisfies what we are all looking for. According to Drs.
Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, people need three
 things to flourish. We look for competence — the need
for mastery, progression, achievement, and growth. We
seek autonomy — the need for volition and freedom of
control over our choice. And finally, we look for
relatedness — the need to feel like we matter to others,
 and that others matter to us. Unfortunately, when
considering the state of modern childhood, many kids
aren’t getting enough of these three essential elements.
School, where kids spend most of their waking
hours, is in many ways the antithesis of a place where
 kids feel competence, autonomy, and relatedness.
There, kids are told what to do, where to be, what to
think, what to wear, and what to eat. While some argue
that discipline and control provide structure, it’s clear
why teachers and students might struggle with
 motivation in the classroom.
Gamers feel competence when they practice
strengths to reach their goals. In a game, players have
the autonomy to call the shots, do what they want, and
experiment with creative strategies to solve problems.
 Games are also social outlets where players can feel
relatedness. In Fortnite, for example, players often
meet in the virtual environment to chat and socialize,
because doing so in the real world is often inconvenient
or off limits.
 Of course, none of this is to say video games
are a good substitution — quite the opposite. No game
can give a child the feeling of competence that comes
from accomplishing a difficult task or learning a new
skill on their own accord. Fortnite can’t compete with
 the exhilaration that comes from the autonomy of
exploring reality, where a child is free to ask questions
and unlock mysteries in the real world. No social media
site can give a kid the sense of relatedness, safety, and
warmth that comes from an adult who loves that child
 unconditionally just the way they are, no matter what,
and takes the time to tell them so.
Some kids suffer from gaming disorders, but
such dependencies are often combined with preexisting
conditions, including problems with impulse control. For
 most children, however, parents understanding the
deeper truth behind what kids are getting out of games
empowers them to take steps to give their children
more of what they need. Video games are this
generation’s outlet, and some kids use them as a tool to
 escape the same way some of us use our own flavor of
dissociative devices to tune out reality for a while.
(Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Access on March 25th, 2021)
1. to toss around – to discuss possibilities or new ideas
2. to step away – to not become involved with something
3. to flourish – to grow or develop successfully
4. volition – the power to make your own decision
5. exhilaration – excitement and happiness
6. to call the shots – to be in position to decide
7. outlet – a way in which emotions, energy or abilities can be expressed or made use of
8. to tune out – to stop paying attention to something or someone
The word furthermore (ℓ. 6) could be replaced, without changing the meaning, by
Questão 6 5944758PUC-Rio 2020
How robot carers could be the future for lonely elderly people
Alessandro Di Nuovo
December 6, 2018
The film Robot and Frank imagined a near-future
where robots could do almost everything humans
could. The elderly title character was given a “robot
butler” to help him continue living on his own. The
robot was capable of everything from cooking and
 cleaning to socializing and, it turned out, burglary. This
kind of science fiction may turn out to be remarkably
prescient. As growing numbers of elderly people
require care, researchers believe that robots could be
 one way to address the overwhelming demand. But
even though robots might be able to provide care and,
in some cases, social interaction, many wonder if they
really are the right solution to this uniquely human
 Loneliness and social isolation are already
problems for many seniors and are even linked to
cognitive decline and a higher death rate. With the
population of seniors expected to rise, many worry
that experiences of loneliness will increase, especially
 if access to care is even more limited.
But despite concerns, early studies already show
that social robots – autonomous robots trained to
interact and communicate with humans – really could
address issues of care and social interaction. The
 majority of robotics researchers are largely in favour
of introducing robotic technology on a wider scale
and believe it could reduce loneliness and increase
independence in elderly patients. The Japanese
government even supports introducing robots in
 care homes to solve the country’s ageing population
problem. However, many strongly recommend
carefully balancing the care benefits against the
A class of social robots – mobile robotic
 telepresence systems (MRTs) – have already been
shown to generate positive social interactions with
elderly patients. MRTs are essentially video screens
on wheels raised to head height that can be controlled
remotely using a simple smartphone app. They allow
 relatives and social workers to “visit” elderly people
more often, even if they live in rural or distant places.
Elderly patients don’t need to operate the device,
leaving them free to interact with their social worker
or family. Communication still happens through a
 computer screen, but the robot’s physical presence
mimics face-to-face interaction for elderly people.
Research has shown that people reacted more
positively when talking with someone through an MRT
than through a regular video call or computer avatar –
 especially lonely people. However, MRTs still require
a human operator, which limits the amount of social
interaction seniors can have daily.
To tackle this, developers worldwide have
started creating robot companions programmed with
 advanced artificial intelligence (AI), which can interact
with people on their own. Some examples include
pet-like companion robots, including Aibo and Paro,
which are made by Japanese developers, and MiRo,
which is manufactured in the UK. Other humanoid
 robots, such as the Care-O-bot and Pepper, are able
to provide more complex and comprehensive care.
Though “pet” robots offer limited interaction, they
have proved as effective – or even more so – than
real pets in reducing loneliness for elderly people in
 care homes. Robotic dogs introduced in one UK care
home this year were reported to bring happiness and
comfort to residents.
On the other hand, humanoid robots are already
advanced enough to provide much-needed care to
 elderly people. These robots can pick things up and
move independently, and have a more natural, human
way of interacting, for example, using arm and hand
gestures. More advanced versions have additional
sensors and devices, including touchscreens. Many
 elderly people, finding the touchscreens hard to use,
preferred giving spoken commands to the robot and
reading its response off the screen. But for those with
age-related hearing loss or vision impairment, having
the option to use the touchscreen was indispensable.
 Humanoid robots are still being developed, so their
capabilities are still limited. Moreover, studies of
humanoid robots have mainly focused on evaluating
how well the technology functions without really
considering the social impact. There is also a general
 assumption that it will naturally reduce loneliness.
Though research into social robots is just
beginning, we do know they can provide some solutions
to the challenges mounted by ageing populations, and
could even help reduce social isolation and loneliness.
 At this point, humans are still better in providing care
and social contact to the elderly, but robots might
be able to fill any gaps, especially as technologies
continue to improve. However, before social robots
can be fully integrated into care homes, researchers
 and service providers must address public anxiety
and make it clear that robots are designed to assist
social workers, not replace them. As long as humans
remain in full control to prevent any danger, robots
might well be the future of care.
Available at:<https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgetsand-tech/features/robot-carer-elderly-people-lonelinessageing-population-care-homes-a8659801.html>. Retrieved on: July 2, 2019. Adapted.
The option in which the expression in boldface conveys an idea of condition is
Questão 35 2471053UPE 1º Fase 1º Dia SSA 2019
The song below was performed by a gospel choir during the mariage ceremony of Prince Harry and the North American Megan Markle, held at Windson Castel on May 19, 2018.
Stand By Me
Ben E. King
When the night has come
And the land is dark
And the moon is the only light we'll see
No I won't be afraid, no I won't be afraid
Just as long as you stand, stand by me
So darling, darling
Stand by me, oh, stand by me
Oh stand, stand by me
Stand by me
If the sky that we look upon
Should tumble and fall
Or the mountains should crumble to the sea
I won't cry, I won't cry
No I won't shed a tear
Just as long as you stand, stand by me
Whenever you're in trouble, won't you stand by me
Oh stand by me
Oh won't you stand now?
Stand by me
In Whenever you’re in trouble(…), the highlighted word, in Portuguese, means
Questão 38 2512302UPE 2º Fase 1º Dia SSA 2019
Considerando o contexto e a gramática da língua inglesa, as palavras que completam as lacunas na tira cômica são, respectivamente,
Questão 15 2789027FCMSCSP Demais Cursos 2019
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
Switzerland’s mysterious fourth language
Despite Romansh being one of Switzerland’s four national languages, less than 0.5% percent of Swiss can answer that question – “Do you speak Romansh?” – with a “yes”. Romansh is a Romance language indigenous to Switzerland’s largest canton, Graubünden, located in the south-eastern corner of the country. In the last one hundred years, the number of Romansh speakers has fallen 50% to a meagre 60,000. Travellers in the canton can still see Romansh on street signs, or hear it in restaurants when they’re greeted with “Allegra!” (Welcome in). But nearly 40% of Romansh speakers have left the area for better job opportunities and it’s rare that you will see or hear Romansh outside the canton. In such a small country, can a language spoken by just a sliver of the population survive, or is it as doomed as the dinosaur and dodo?
Language exists to convey a people’s culture to the next generation, so it makes sense that the Swiss are protective of Romansh. When the world loses a language, as it does every two weeks, we collectively lose the knowledge from past generations. “Language is a salient and important expression of cultural identity, and without language you will lose many aspects of the culture,” said Dr Gregory Anderson, Director of the Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages.
Without the Romansh language, who is to say if customs like Chalandamarz, an ancient festival held each 1 March to celebrate the end of winter and coming of spring, will endure; or if traditional local recipes like capuns – spätzle wrapped in greens – will be forgotten? “Romansh contributes in its own way to a multilingual Switzerland,” says Daniel Telli, head of the Unit Lingua. “And on a different level, the death of a language implies the loss of a unique way to see and describe the world.”
(Dena Roché. www.bbc.com, 28.06.2018. Adaptado.)
In the fragment from the second paragraph “Language exists to convey a people’s culture to the next generation, so it makes sense that the Swiss are protective of Romansh.”, the term underlined introduces
Questão 5 1058396UFMS 2018
Read the text below. Fill in the blanks with the right conjunctions.
In today's world, (I) _________ just about everything is more convenient and accessible due to advances in technology across almost all sectors, it may seem (II)_________ it's a misnomer to even mention any disadvantages of technological advances. (III) __________, despite how far technology has taken humans and no matter (IV) ______ convenient it may make things, there are some disadvantages accompanying this level of access.
Technology advances show people a more efficient way to do things, and these processes get results. For example, education has been greatly advanced by the technological advances of computers. Students are able to learn on a global scale without ever leaving their classrooms. Agricultural processes (V)_______ once required dozens upon dozens of human workers can now be automated, thanks to advances in technology, which means cost-efficiency for farmers. Medical discoveries occur at a much more rapid rate, thanks to machines and computers that aid in the research process and allow for more intense educational research into medical matters.
Cost efficiency is an advantage in some ways and a disadvantage in others. (VI) _______ technology improves on existing processes and showcases new ways to accomplish tasks, machines are able to produce the same -- if not more -- output (VII) _______ humans in certain industries. This results in cost savings for business owners, allowing them to invest in growth in other areas of the business, (VIII) _________ contributes on a positive level to the economy as a whole.
Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-technology-advances-12579.html..
Mark the correct alternative.
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