Questões de Inglês - Grammar
Questão 5 1058396UFMS 2018
Read the text below. Fill in the blanks with the right conjunctions.
In today's world, (I) _________ just about everything is more convenient and accessible due to advances in technology across almost all sectors, it may seem (II)_________ it's a misnomer to even mention any disadvantages of technological advances. (III) __________, despite how far technology has taken humans and no matter (IV) ______ convenient it may make things, there are some disadvantages accompanying this level of access.
Technology advances show people a more efficient way to do things, and these processes get results. For example, education has been greatly advanced by the technological advances of computers. Students are able to learn on a global scale without ever leaving their classrooms. Agricultural processes (V)_______ once required dozens upon dozens of human workers can now be automated, thanks to advances in technology, which means cost-efficiency for farmers. Medical discoveries occur at a much more rapid rate, thanks to machines and computers that aid in the research process and allow for more intense educational research into medical matters.
Cost efficiency is an advantage in some ways and a disadvantage in others. (VI) _______ technology improves on existing processes and showcases new ways to accomplish tasks, machines are able to produce the same -- if not more -- output (VII) _______ humans in certain industries. This results in cost savings for business owners, allowing them to invest in growth in other areas of the business, (VIII) _________ contributes on a positive level to the economy as a whole.
Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-technology-advances-12579.html..
Mark the correct alternative.
Questão 19 787260USS 2015/1
Aspirin a day could dramatically cut cancer risk, says biggest study yet
An aspirin a day could dramatically cut people’s chances of getting and dying from common
cancers, according to the most detailed review yet of the cheap drug’s ability to stem disease.
More than 130,000 deaths would be avoided over a 20-year period if Britain’s 50- to 65-year-olds
took a daily aspirin for ten years, because the beneficial effects continue even when the aspirin is
 stopped, the authors say.
A research team led by Professor Jack Cuzick, head of the centre for cancer prevention at Queen
Mary University of London, concluded that people between 50 and 65 should consider regularly
taking the 75 mg low-dosage tablets. Cuzick said that taking aspirin “looks to be the most important
thing we can do to reduce cancer, after stopping smoking and reducing obesity, and will probably
 be much easier to implement”.
In a briefing to journalists, the scientist added that he had been dosing himself for the last four
years, keeping the tablets beside his bed. “I take aspirin as part of a bedtime ritual every day”, he
said. However, to obtain the newfound benefits of the drug, people would have to take aspirin for
at least five years and probably ten, the review said.
 Aspirin was originally developed as a painkiller and treatment for fever and inflammation, but more
than a century after it was first synthesised from willow bark, researchers have found more medical
uses for it. It has been demonstrated to reduce the risks of heart attacks and strokes as well as the
chances of some cancers. But the big question has been whether the benefits outweigh the harms,
because aspirin can cause stomach bleeds, which could be potentially fatal in some people.
 “Aspirin is showing promise in preventing certain types of cancer, but it’s vital that we balance this
with the complications it can cause – such as bleeding, stomach ulcers, or even strokes in some
people”, said Dr. Julie Sharp, head of health information at Cancer Research UK. “Before aspirin can
be recommended for cancer prevention; some important questions need to be answered, including
what is the best dose and how long people should take it for. And tests need to be developed to
 predict who is likely to have side-effects”, she said.
As a generic drug – Bayer’s patent ran out in the 1930s – there are no profits to be made by
big pharmaceutical companies from the estimated 100 billion tablets taken around the world
It has been demonstrated to reduce the risks of heart attacks and strokes as well as the chances of some cancers. (l. 17-18)
In the fragment above, the underlined linking words express the notion of:
Questão 56 3622771UNIPAM 2014
Read the text below and answer the question.
What Is a Neutron Bomb?
By Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D., About.com Guide
(1) A neutron bomb, also called an enhanced radiation bomb, is a type of thermonuclear
weapon. An enhanced radiation bomb is any weapon which uses fusion to enhance the production
of radiation beyond that which is normal for an atomic device. In a neutron bomb, the burst of
neutrons generated by the fusion reaction is intentionally allowed to escape using X-ray mirrors and
an atomically inert shell casing, such as chromium or nickel. The energy yield for a neutron bomb
may be as little as half that of a conventional device, though radiation output is only slightly less.
Although considered to be 'small' bombs, a neutron bomb still has a yield in the tens or hundreds of
kilotons range. Neutron bombs are expensive to make and maintain because they require
considerable amounts of tritium, which has a relatively short half-life (12.32 years). Manufacture of
the weapons requires that a constant supply of tritium of be available. Neutron bombs have a
relatively short shelf-life.
(13) U.S. research on neutron bombs began in 1958 at the University of California's
Lawrence Radiation Laboratory under the direction of Edward Teller. News that a neutron bomb
was under development was publically released in the early 1960s. It is thought that the first
neutron bomb was built by scientists at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in 1963, and was tested
underground 70 mi. north of Las Vegas, also in 1963. The first neutron bomb was added to the U.S.
weapons arsenal in 1974. That bomb was designed by Samuel Cohen and was produced at the
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
(21) The primary strategic uses of a neutron bomb would be as an anti-missile device, to kill
soldiers who are protected by armor, to temporarily or permanently disable armored targets, or to
take out targets fairly close to friendly forces. It is untrue that neutron bombs leave buildings and
other structures intact. This is because the blast and thermal effects are damaging much further out
than the radiation. Although military targets may be fortified, civilian structures are destroyed by a
relatively mild blast. Armor, on the other hand, isn't affected by thermal effects or the blast except
very near to ground zero. However, armor, and the personnel directing, it is damaged by the intense
radiation of a neutron bomb. In the case of armored targets, the lethal range from neutron bombs
greatly exceeds that of other weapons. Also, the neutrons interact with the armor and can make
armored targets radioactive and unusable (usually 24-48 hours). For example, M-1 tank armor
includes depleted uranium, which can undergo fast fission and can be made to be radioactive when
bombarded with neutrons. As an anti-missile weapon, enhanced radiation weapons can intercept
and damage the electronic components of incoming warheads with the intense neutron flux
generated upon their detonation.
(Taken from the website: http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryfaqs/f/neutronbomb.htm).
In the sentence, “An enhanced radiation bomb is any weapon which uses fusion to enhance the production of radiation beyond that which is normal for an atomic device”, the underlined relative pronoun which refers to the word
Questão 28 4368717UNESP Cursos da área de biológicas 2021
Analise o gráfico e leia o texto para responder à questão.
The cost of closed schools
Countries’ response to school closures
By remote-learning type and income group, %
Three-quarters of the world’s children live in countries where classrooms are closed. As lockdowns ease, schools should be among the first places to reopen. Children seem to be less likely than adults to catch covid-19. And the costs of closure are staggering: in the lost productivity of home schooling parents; and, far more important, in the damage done to children by lost learning. The costs fall most heavily on the youngest, who among other things miss out on picking up social and emotional skills; and on the less welloff, who are less likely to attend online lessons and who may be missing meals as well as classes. West African children whose schools were closed during the Ebola epidemic in 2014 are still paying the price.
(www.economist.com, 01.05.2020. Adaptado.)
No trecho “As lockdowns ease, schools should be among the first places to reopen”, o termo sublinhado indica
Questão 3 5321728EPCAR 2021
Directions: Answer question according to the text.
Many parents are concerned with their child’s
seemingly obsessive video game play. Fortnite, the
most recent gaming phenomenon, has taken the world
by storm and has parents asking if the shooter game is
 okay for kids. The short answer is yes, Fortnite is
generally fine. Furthermore, parents can breathe easier
knowing that research suggests gaming (on its own)
does not cause disorders like addiction.
However, there’s more to the story. A
 comprehensive answer to the question of whether video
games are prejudicial must take into account other
factors, and parents need to understand why kids play,
as well as when to worry and when to relax.
The word “addiction” gets tossed around quite
 a bit these days, but if it isn’t causing serious harm and
disorder to daily function, it isn’t an addiction. Parents
may worry that their kids are addicted, but if the children
can pull themselves away from a game to join the family
for a conversation over dinner and shows interest in
 other activities, like sports or socializing with friends,
then they are not addicted.
Generally, parents panic when their kid’s video
game playing comes at the expense of doing other
things, like studying or helping around the house. But
 let’s be honest, kids have been avoiding these activities
for ages. Equally true is the fact that parents have been
complaining about their unhelpful children well before the
first video game was plugged into its socket.
In fact, moderate video game play has been
 shown to be beneficial. A study conducted at Oxford by
Dr. Andrew Przybylski revealed that playing about one
hour per day improved psychological well-being, while
when taken to an extreme, playing over three hours per
day, was correlated with less well-being.
 The real question should be what is it about
the special attraction of gaming that makes it the
preferred pastime of so many millions of kids? What
makes it so difficult for even non-addicted kids to step
away from video games sometimes? The answer has to
 do with the way games address basic psychological
Fortnite, like any well-designed video game,
satisfies what we are all looking for. According to Drs.
Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, people need three
 things to flourish. We look for competence — the need
for mastery, progression, achievement, and growth. We
seek autonomy — the need for volition and freedom of
control over our choice. And finally, we look for
relatedness — the need to feel like we matter to others,
 and that others matter to us. Unfortunately, when
considering the state of modern childhood, many kids
aren’t getting enough of these three essential elements.
School, where kids spend most of their waking
hours, is in many ways the antithesis of a place where
 kids feel competence, autonomy, and relatedness.
There, kids are told what to do, where to be, what to
think, what to wear, and what to eat. While some argue
that discipline and control provide structure, it’s clear
why teachers and students might struggle with
 motivation in the classroom.
Gamers feel competence when they practice
strengths to reach their goals. In a game, players have
the autonomy to call the shots, do what they want, and
experiment with creative strategies to solve problems.
 Games are also social outlets where players can feel
relatedness. In Fortnite, for example, players often
meet in the virtual environment to chat and socialize,
because doing so in the real world is often inconvenient
or off limits.
 Of course, none of this is to say video games
are a good substitution — quite the opposite. No game
can give a child the feeling of competence that comes
from accomplishing a difficult task or learning a new
skill on their own accord. Fortnite can’t compete with
 the exhilaration that comes from the autonomy of
exploring reality, where a child is free to ask questions
and unlock mysteries in the real world. No social media
site can give a kid the sense of relatedness, safety, and
warmth that comes from an adult who loves that child
 unconditionally just the way they are, no matter what,
and takes the time to tell them so.
Some kids suffer from gaming disorders, but
such dependencies are often combined with preexisting
conditions, including problems with impulse control. For
 most children, however, parents understanding the
deeper truth behind what kids are getting out of games
empowers them to take steps to give their children
more of what they need. Video games are this
generation’s outlet, and some kids use them as a tool to
 escape the same way some of us use our own flavor of
dissociative devices to tune out reality for a while.
(Adapted from https://www.psychologytoday.com. Access on March 25th, 2021)
1. to toss around – to discuss possibilities or new ideas
2. to step away – to not become involved with something
3. to flourish – to grow or develop successfully
4. volition – the power to make your own decision
5. exhilaration – excitement and happiness
6. to call the shots – to be in position to decide
7. outlet – a way in which emotions, energy or abilities can be expressed or made use of
8. to tune out – to stop paying attention to something or someone
The word furthermore (ℓ. 6) could be replaced, without changing the meaning, by
Questão 2 5606988UEMS 2021
Read Text to answer question
The Brazilian culture is one of the world’s most varied and diverse. This is due to its being a melting pot of nationalities, (I) __________ a result of centuries of European domination (II) _________ slavery, which brought hordes of African migrants across Brazil’s borders to live in and influence the local cultures with their ancient customs and ideas. The European settlers also brought ideas, innovations (III) ______ belief systems with them, shaping the local societies significantly. All of these different influences have meant that the modern-day Brazilian culture is unique and very complex.
At present, Brazil has a population of about 190 million people. Of these, more than half are white (IV)__________ includes Portuguese, Italian, Polish etc... individuals), just fewer than 40% are mixed black and white and less than 10% are black.
Approximately 80% of the population ascribes to the Roman Catholic faith. This is due to the intense Portuguese occupation of centuries ago. These European settlers taught the indigenous tribes Catholicism, built churches and established traditions and customs that originated in this church.
Also due to the mass Portuguese settlements during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, this language is the official language of Brazil. There are small numbers of indigenous people and immigrants who still speak their own tongues, but these are certainly among the vast minority.
Brazilians, as a nation, focus much importance on the family structure and the values that are entrenched within that institution. Families are usually large, and even extended family members are close with one another, providing much-needed help and support to each other (V) ___________ and (VI) ______________ necessary.
Adapted Text - Available at: https://www.brazil.org.za/brazil-culture.html#:~:text= The%20Brazilian%20culture%20is%20one%20of%20the%20 world's%20most%20varied%20and%20diverse.&text=At%20 present%2C%20Brazil%20has%20a,less%20than%2010%25 %20are%20black.. Access on: 08 jan. 2021.
Complete as lacunas numeradas no texto com as conjunções corretas.