Questões de Inglês - Grammar
Questão 13 3630431AFA 2020
The end of life on Earth?
It weighted about 10,000 tons, entered the
atmosphere at a speed of 64,000 km/h and exploded
over a city with a blast of 500 kilotons. But on 15
February 2013, we were lucky. The metereorite that
 showered pieces of rock over Chelyabinsk, Russia, was
relatively small, at only about 17 metres wide. Although
many people were injured by falling glass, the damage
was nothing compared to what had happened in Siberia
nearly one hundred years ago, when a relatively small
 object (approximately 50 metres in diameter) exploded in
mid-air over a forest region, flattening about 80 million
trees. If it had exploded over a city such as Moscow or
London, millions of people would have been killed.
By a strange coincidence, the same day that the
 meteorite terrified the people of Chelyabinsk, another
50m-wide asteroid passed relatively close to Earth.
Scientists were expecting that visit and know that the
asteroid will return to fly close by us in 2046, but the
Russian meteorite earlier in the day had been too small
 for anyone to spot.
Most scientists agree that comets and asteroids
pose the biggest natural threat to human existence. It
was probably a large asteroid or comet colliding with
Earth which wiped out the dinosaurs about 65 million
 years ago. An enormous object, 10 to 16 km in diameter,
struck the Yucatan region in Mexico with the force of 100
megatons. That is the equivalent of one Hiroshima bomb
for every person alive on Earth today.
Many scientists, including the late Stephen
 Hawking, say that any comet or asteroid greater than
20km in diameter that hits Earth will result in the
complete destruction of complex life, including all
animals and most plants. As we have seen even a much
smaller asteroid can cause great damage.
 The Earth has been kept fairly safe for the last 65
million years by good fortune and the massive
gravitational field of the planet Jupiter. Our cosmic
guardian, with its stable circular orbit far from the sun,
sweeps up and scatters away most of the dangerous
 comets and asteroids which might cross Earth’s orbit.
After the Chelyabinsk meteorite, scientists are now
monitoring potential hazards even more carefully but, as
far as they know, there is no danger in the foreseeable
 Types of space rocks
• Comet – a ball of rock and ice that sends out a
tail of gas and dust behind it. Bright comets only appear
in our visible night sky about once every ten years.
• Asteroid – a rock a few feet to several kms in
 diameter. Unlike comets, asteroids have no tail. Most
are to small to cause any damage and burn up in the
• Meteoroid – part of an asteroid or comet.
• Meteorite – what a meteoroid is called when it
 hits Earth.
Taken from: http://learningenglishteens.britishcouncil.org - Access on 29/06/2020
“Which” (line 40) refers to
Questão 5 1058396UFMS 2018
Read the text below. Fill in the blanks with the right conjunctions.
In today's world, (I) _________ just about everything is more convenient and accessible due to advances in technology across almost all sectors, it may seem (II)_________ it's a misnomer to even mention any disadvantages of technological advances. (III) __________, despite how far technology has taken humans and no matter (IV) ______ convenient it may make things, there are some disadvantages accompanying this level of access.
Technology advances show people a more efficient way to do things, and these processes get results. For example, education has been greatly advanced by the technological advances of computers. Students are able to learn on a global scale without ever leaving their classrooms. Agricultural processes (V)_______ once required dozens upon dozens of human workers can now be automated, thanks to advances in technology, which means cost-efficiency for farmers. Medical discoveries occur at a much more rapid rate, thanks to machines and computers that aid in the research process and allow for more intense educational research into medical matters.
Cost efficiency is an advantage in some ways and a disadvantage in others. (VI) _______ technology improves on existing processes and showcases new ways to accomplish tasks, machines are able to produce the same -- if not more -- output (VII) _______ humans in certain industries. This results in cost savings for business owners, allowing them to invest in growth in other areas of the business, (VIII) _________ contributes on a positive level to the economy as a whole.
Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-technology-advances-12579.html..
Mark the correct alternative.
Questão 17 2650686UNIMONTES 2° Etapa 2019
INSTRUÇÃO: Leia o texto que segue para responder à questão.
What is life like for people who live in the Highlands of Scotland?
Scotland, famous for its whisky, its wool, its kilts, and many other fine things, covers about a third of the
territory of Great Britain. Britain has a population of about 64 million inhabitants — yet less than ten per cent of them
now live in Scotland, about 5.3 million people. And most of those 5.3 million people live in or near three urban centres,
Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Dundee.
 In the Highlands, which cover most of Scotland, the population is very thin. In many places — if there is
actually a road — you can drive for over 30 kilometres without seeing any human habitation, except perhaps a solitary
"croft", a small farm. Yet here and there, there are small towns; most of them are beside the sea. They have their
inhabitants and their economic activities, their children and their teenagers.
This Highlander, in traditional military uniform, is carrying bagpipes, and wearing a kilt. He also has a black
 leather sporran.
What is "a Highlander"?
If you ask someone to describe a Highlander to you, he will probably come up with the type of image you see
in whisky advertisements. A man wearing a kilt and a sporran, and standing on a misty mountain near a haunted
castle. The man plays the bagpipes, eats porridge and haggis, and drinks whisky. Now while it is true that whisky is
 indeed a favourite drink in the Highlands, the rest of the image is a long way from everyday reality.
Few Highlanders wear the kilt, except on special occasions or for ceremony.
Clans, Kilts & Tartans
You can't talk of the Highlands without talking of clans and kilts and tartans. A "clan" is a sort of tribe — a
group of people who belong to the same extended family, or have the same historic origin. In the past, each part of
 the Highlands was the territory of a clan. Clans were closely linked communities, each with its own chief. Clans were
— and still are — distinguished by their tartan. A tartan is a specific design, a criss-cross of couloured threads, which
is used for ceremonial clothes, such as the kilt or the plaid.
Disponível em: https://linguapress.com/intermediate/highland-life.htm. Acesso em: 7 out. 2019. Adaptado.
No trecho “Britain has a population of about 64 million inhabitants — yet less than ten per cent of them now live in Scotland [g]” (linhas 2-3), a conjunção “yet” pode ser substituída por qual termo, sem que haja mudança de sentido?
Questão 43 418674UNIFEV 2015/2
Breastfeeding “linked to higher IQ”
March 18, 2015
A long-term study has pointed to a link between breastfeeding and intelligence. The research in Brazil traced nearly 3,500 babies, from all walks of life, and found those who had been breastfed for longer went on to score higher on IQ tests as adults. Experts say the results, while not conclusive, appear to back current advice that babies should be exclusively breastfed for six months. But they say mothers should still have a choice about whether or not to do it.
Regarding the findings – published in The Lancet Global Health – they stress there are many different factors other than breastfeeding that could have an impact on intelligence, although the researchers did try to rule out the main confounders, such as mother’s education, family income and birth weight.
Dr Bernardo Lessa Horta, from the Federal University of Pelotas in Brazil, said his study offers a unique insight because in the population he studied, breastfeeding was evenly distributed across social class – not something just practised by the rich and educated.
Most of the babies, irrespective of social class, were breastfed – some for less than a month and others for more than a year. Those who were breastfed for longer scored higher on measures of intelligence as adults. They were also more likely to earn a higher wage and to have completed more schooling.
• Long-term impact
Dr Horta believes breast milk may offer an advantage because it is a good source of long-chain saturated fatty acids which are essential for brain development. But experts say the study findings cannot confirm this and that much more research is needed to explore any possible link between breastfeeding and intelligence.
Kevin Fenton, national director of health and wellbeing, Public Health England (PHE), said there was strong evidence that breastfeeding provides some health benefits for babies - reduced respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in infancy, for example. He said: “PHE’s advice remains that exclusive breastfeeding for around the first six months of life provides health benefits to babies. We recognise, however, that not all mothers choose, or are able, to breastfeed and infant formula is the only alternative to breast milk for babies under 12 months old.” Janet Fyle of the Royal College of Midwives said new mothers needed breastfeeding support.
Dr Colin Michie, chairman of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health’s nutrition committee, said: “There have been many studies on the link between breastfeeding and IQ over the years with many having had their validity challenged. This study however, looks at a number of other factors including education achievement and income at age 30 which, along with the high sample size, makes this study a very powerful one. It is important to note that breastfeeding is one of many factors that can contribute to a child’s outcomes, however this study emphasises the need for continued and enhanced breastfeeding promotion so expectant mothers are aware of the benefits of breastfeeding.”
No trecho do primeiro parágrafo “while not conclusive”, o termo “while” pode ser corretamente substituído, sem alteração de sentido, por
Questão 11 1008655UEA - SIS 2ª Etapa 2013
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
It was Christmas, and there was a big party in the house. Guests came and went, but the party continued. Then the bell rang. Several people shouted, “Come in!” and a short man opened the front door and came in. Nobody knew him, but the host went to meet him and took him 11 the bar for a drink. The man sat there happily for an hour and a half, drank and talked. Then suddenly he stopped and looked at his host. “You see,” he said, “I’m your neighbor, but nobody invited me to this party. I don’t know you, I don’t know your wife and I don’t know any of your guests. My wife, 12 is waiting for me in our car, just wanted us to go to the cinema, but one of your guests’ cars was in front of our gate, so I came here to find the driver!”
(L. A. Hill. Elementary Stories for Reproduction, 1972. Adaptado.)
Para responder à questão, assinale as alternativas que completam corretamente as respectivas lacunas numeradas no texto.
Questão 23 304042UFRR 2° Etapa 2010
EPA: TOXIC AIR IN 600 U.S. NEIGHBORHOODS By AP / DINA CAPPIELLO Wednesday, Jun. 24, 2009 http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1906717,00.html
WASHINGTON — Millions of people living in nearly 600 neighborhoods across the country are breathing concentrations of toxic air pollutants that put them at a much greater risk of contracting cancer, according to new data from the Environmental Protection Agency.
The levels of 80 cancer-causing substances released by automobiles, factories, and other sources in these areas exceed a 100 in 1 million cancer risk. That means that if 1 million people breathed air with similar concentrations over their lifetime, about 100 additional people would be expected to develop cancer because of their exposure to the pollution.
The average cancer risk across the country is 36 in 1 million, according to the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment, which will be released by the EPA on Wednesday.
Since the last update in 2006, which covered 1999 emissions, cancer risk nationwide has declined from 41.5 people in 1 million to 36 people in 1 million. "If we are in between 10 in 1 million and 100 in 1 million we want to look more deeply at that. If the risk is greater than 100 in 1 million, we don't like that at all ... we want to investigate that risk and do something about it," said Kelly Rimer, an environmental scientist with the EPA, in an interview with The Associated Press on Tuesday.
Parts of Los Angeles, California and Madison County, Illinois had the highest cancer risks in the nation — 1200 in 1 million and 1100 in 1 million, according to the EPA data. They were followed by two neighborhoods in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and one in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama.
People living in parts of Coconino County, Arizona and Lyon County, Nevada had the lowest cancer risk from air toxics. The counties with the least toxic air are Kalawao County, Hawaii and Golden Valley County in Montana. "Air toxic risks are local. They are a function of the sources nearest to you," said Dave Guinnup, who leads the groups that perform the risk assessments for toxic air pollutants at EPA. "If you are out in the Rocky Mountains, you are going to be closer to 2 in a million. If you are in an industrial area with a lot of traffic, you are going to be closer to 1100 in 1 million."
The analysis predicts the concentrations of 124 different hazardous air pollutants, which are known to cause cancer, respiratory problems and other health effects by coupling estimates of emissions from a variety of sources with models that attempt to simulate how the pollution will disperse in the air. Only 80 of the chemicals evaluated are known to cause cancer, EPA officials said.
The information is used by federal, state and local agencies to identify areas in need of more monitoring and attention.
The data to be released Wednesday covers pollution released in 2002.
Billy: “After you ________work, will you please drop by the grocery store and pick up some milk and bread.”
Sally: “No problem, I ________up the groceries and be home by 6 o’clock.”