Questão 46 1937632EN 2° Dia 2015
Which of the options completes the sentence correctly?
People who are middle-aged and older tend to know more than voung adults they have been around longer, and score higher on vocabulary tests, crossword puzzles and other measures of so-called crystallized intelligence.
(Adapted from http://www.nytimes.com)
Questão 12 6856501FEMA Medicina 2021/2
Leia o texto para responder a questão.
In the first tip “Cook at home more often to avoid processed foods”, the underlined word indicates
Questão 37 2512115UPE 2° Fase 1° Dia SSA 2019
How social media affects your teen‘s self-esteem
In the world of social media, today‘s youth are often living their lives in full view of an online audience. For those from a different generation, the idea of ‗checking in‘ online or sharing a selfie to let people know where you are and what you‘re up to might seem bizarre. But for young people today, getting ‗likes‘ on photos, posts or comments in the virtual world can bring a powerful sense of accomplishment and community acceptance.
But could this constant search for validation trigger negative thoughts about body image? Might the endless comparison with other people's photos online cause a young person to feel dissatisfied with their own looks? Here‘s how to help your child avoid the pitfalls of body obsession while using social media.
The impact of social media on body image
A study conducted by Florida State University and published by the International Journal of Eating Disorders found that a group of women who were asked to browse Facebook for 20 minutes experienced greater body dissatisfaction than those who spent 20 minutes researching rainforest cats online.
Claire Mysko, an award-winning author and expert on body image, leadership and media literacy, explains: "While social media is not the cause of low self-esteem, it has all the right elements to contribute to it. (…) Social media creates an environment where disordered thoughts and behaviours really thrive".
For young people who have a tendency towards perfectionism, anxiety or disordered eating, the (often digitally enhanced) images of thin girls or women they see online can lead them to equate slimness with happiness. Validation of their own photos from other social media users ("You look great!" "Have you lost weight?") may falsely fulfil their need for acceptance – further distorting their body image.
Mysko warns that, while social media gives young people – especially girls – the feedback and validation they crave, it can also "serve as a catalyst for more insecurity."
It‘s important that parents understand and embrace how social media affects young people, because it‘s young people‘s accepted currency of communication today.
First published: May 2017
(In: http://parentinfo.org/article/how-social-media-affects-your-teen-s-self-esteem. Adaptado.)
Observe os trechos a seguir e as palavras sublinhadas:
I. "(…) Social media creates an environment where disordered thoughts and behaviours really thrive."
II. (…) may falsely fulfil their need for acceptance – further distorting their body image.
III. But could this constant search for validation trigger negative thoughts about body image?
IV. "While social media is not the cause of low self-esteem, it has all the right elements to contribute to it. (…)"
V. It’s important that parents understand and embrace how social media affects young people, because it’s young people’s accepted currency of communication today
Em relação às palavras destacadas, é CORRETO afirmar que se classificam em
Questão 22 242838UEFS Caderno 1 2018/1
Twitter’s testing a 280-character limit for tweets
Twitter chief executive Jack Dorsey last year made a definitive announcement about the company’s famous 140-character count amid rumors that the firm would substantially relax the limit. “It’s staying, It’s a good constraint for us.”
On Tuesday, the company took it back – for some people, at least.
Twitter is testing a feature to let some users double the amount of characters allowed in a tweet. The 280-character limit will be available to a small group of people on the site. When asked for more information, Twitter said it would be a “single-digit percentage” of its 328 million users – so, millions – who will be “randomly chosen.”
The company declined to comment directly on how it’s choosing those people or why it changed its mind about its 140-character limit. But in a company blog post, product manager Aliza Rosen and senior software engineer Ikuhiro Ihara said the team started looking into the restrictions of the 140-character limit after noticing differences among languages. Some languages – specifically Chinese, Japanese and Korean – allow for greater expression in fewer characters.
“We see that a small percent of tweets sent in Japanese have 140 characters (only 0.4%). But in English, a much higher percentage of tweets have 140 characters (9%). Most Japanese tweets are 15 characters while most English tweets are 34,” the post said.
The 280-character test will roll out in all languages except for Chinese, Japanese and Korean. It’s true that some languages allow each character to count for more. My own last name, Tsukayama, is nine letters in English; phonetically in Japanese, it’s four letters. If you use Japanese kanji characters, it’s three.
But Twitter users in other languages have found workarounds to bypass the 140-character limit. It’s common to see someone send out a thread, or “Twitterstorm,” by signaling that their thoughts are going to come in several bite-sized chunks. Twitter itself did this when addressing why it hasn’t suspended President Trump from its platform. Dorsey himself has used a common workaround – posting an image of longer text – to get around the character limit, even while extolling the virtues of brevity early last year.
“Although we feel confident about our data and the positive impact this change will have, we want to try it out with a small group of people before we make a decision to launch to everyone,” the blog post said. “We understand since many of you have been tweeting for years, there may be an emotional attachment to 140 characters – we felt it, too. But we tried this, saw the power of what it will do, and fell in love with this new, still brief, constraint.”
(Hayley Tsukayama. www.washingtonpost.com, 26.09.2017. Adaptado.)
In the fragment from the last paragraph “We understand since many of you have been tweeting for years, there may be an emotional attachment to 140 characters”, the term underlined could be replaced, with no change meaning, by
Questão 19 294582FMP 2018
Cross-cultural Issues and Diverse Belief,
Douglas S. Diekema MD, MPH
Patients may bring cultural, religious and
ideological beliefs with them as they enter into a
relationship with the physician. Occasionally, these
beliefs may challenge or conflict with what the physician
 believes to be good medical care. Understanding
and respecting the beliefs of the patient represents
an important part of establishing and maintaining a
therapeutic relationship. While the principle of respect
for autonomy requires that a physician respect the
 medical decisions of a competent adult patient, in
cases of surrogate decision-making, the physician
has an independent duty to guard the interests of the
Why is it important to respect what appears to me
 to be idiosyncratic beliefs?
Respecting the beliefs and values of your patient
is an important part of establishing an effective
therapeutic relationship. Failure to take those beliefs
seriously can undermine the patient’s ability to trust
 you as her physician. It may also encourage persons
with non-mainstream cultural or religious beliefs to
avoid seeking medical care when they need it.
What are some ways to discover well known sets
 There are many groups that share common sets
of beliefs. These belief systems may be based on
shared religions, ethnicity, or ideology. Knowledge
of these beliefs and the reasonable range of
interpretation of doctrine should be very helpful in
 deciding if unusual beliefs should be respected. Good
resources for guidance in this area include patients
and family members themselves, staff members with
personal knowledge or experience, hospital chaplains,
social workers, and interpreters. Unusual beliefs that
 fall outside known belief systems should prompt more
in-depth discussions to insure they are reasonable.
It is important to explore each individual’s beliefs,
as shared membership in a particular religious or
cultural group does not necessarily entail identical
 belief systems.
What is my responsibility when a patient
endangers her health by refusing a treatment?
Adults have a moral and legal right to make
decisions about their own health care, including the
 right to refuse treatments that may be life-saving.
The physician has a responsibility to make sure that
the patient understands the possible and probable
outcomes of refusing the proposed treatment. The
physician should attempt to understand the basis for
 the patient’s refusal and address those concerns and
any misperceptions the patient may have. In some
cases, enlisting the aid of a leader in the patient’s
cultural or religious community may be helpful.
Can parents refuse to provide their children with
 necessary medical treatment on the basis of their
Parents have legal and moral authority to make
health care decisions for their children, as long
as those decisions do not pose a significant risk of
 serious harm to the child’s health. Parents should not
be permitted to deny their children medical care when
that medical care is likely to prevent substantial harm
or suffering. If necessary, the physician may need
to pursue a court order or seek the involvement of
 child protective services in order to provide treatment
against the wishes of the parents. Nevertheless, the
physician must always take care to show respect
for the family’s beliefs and a willingness to discuss
reasonable alternatives with the family.
 What kinds of treatment can parents choose not
to provide to their children?
Parents have the right to refuse medical
treatments when doing so does not place the child
at significant risk of substantial harm or suffering.
 For example, parents have the right to refuse routine
immunizations for their children on religious or cultural
Can a patient demand that I provide them with a
form of treatment that I am uncomfortable providing?
 A physician is not morally obligated to provide
treatment modalities that they do not believe offer a
benefit to the patient or which may harm the patient.
Physicians should also not offer treatments that
they do not feel competent to provide or prescribe.
 However, it is important to take the patient’s request
seriously, consider accommodating requests that
will not harm the patient or others, and attempt to
formulate a plan that would be acceptable to both the
physician and patient.
Available at: . Retrieved on: July 3rd, 2017. Adapted.
In the fragment of the text “It is important to explore each individual’s beliefs, as shared membership in a particular religious or cultural group does not necessarily entail identical belief systems” (lines 37-40), the word as can be replaced, without change in meaning, by
Questão 48 301023UNICID 2018
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
Tiny viruses live in your body: what to know about viromes and what scientists are doing to protect you
Wildlife biologists have enlisted the help of mice and other creatures as they try to better understand how viruses infect humans and how to protect them. “Most of the emerging infectious diseases that arise come from wildlife reservoir hosts,” researcher Kurt Vandegrift said in a statement from Pennsylvania State University. The university added, “One key to fighting emerging diseases is finding out before they get into humans which pathogens we’re most likely to encounter — the ones that are carried by the wild creatures we’re most likely to touch, share space with, or be bitten by.” In the U.S., that includes mice and deer ticks, for example.
While studying wildlife, the scientists may find viruses that could one day evolve to infect humans. Discovering them ahead of time gives experts a leg up on observing how the viruses work, creating vaccines or taking other measures. Studying animals has another benefit: learning more about their viromes — the collections of viruses in and on them — could lead to more information about the human virome.
Human beings are full of viruses, Penn State says. “Some of your viruses are just visiting and will be gone in a week. Most are permanent tenants. A few may even find their way into your DNA.” That’s not necessarily a bad thing, as the university notes that we owe our placenta and thus our reproductive process to virus genes and evolution. We can also be invaded by a virus but never see an infection, or become barely sick at all while others are debilitated.
“We are rarely, if ever, infected by just one germ at a time,” according to Penn State, “and since pathogens change your immune system, how sick you get from a new pathogen doesn’t depend only on the ones you’re infected with now; it’s a reflection of all the infectious diseases you’ve ever had, and even in what order you had them.” The ongoing research would not be the first time animals have taught scientists a thing or two about viruses. Smallpox is now eradicated but was once a highly contagious and often deadly virus in humans.
(Elana Glowatz. www.medicaldaily.com, 10.02.2017. Adaptado.)
No trecho do quarto parágrafo “and since pathogens change your immune system”, o termo em destaque equivale, em português, a