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Questão 15 2789027FCMSCSP Demais Cursos 2019
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Switzerland’s mysterious fourth language
Despite Romansh being one of Switzerland’s four national languages, less than 0.5% percent of Swiss can answer that question – “Do you speak Romansh?” – with a “yes”. Romansh is a Romance language indigenous to Switzerland’s largest canton, Graubünden, located in the south-eastern corner of the country. In the last one hundred years, the number of Romansh speakers has fallen 50% to a meagre 60,000. Travellers in the canton can still see Romansh on street signs, or hear it in restaurants when they’re greeted with “Allegra!” (Welcome in). But nearly 40% of Romansh speakers have left the area for better job opportunities and it’s rare that you will see or hear Romansh outside the canton. In such a small country, can a language spoken by just a sliver of the population survive, or is it as doomed as the dinosaur and dodo?
Language exists to convey a people’s culture to the next generation, so it makes sense that the Swiss are protective of Romansh. When the world loses a language, as it does every two weeks, we collectively lose the knowledge from past generations. “Language is a salient and important expression of cultural identity, and without language you will lose many aspects of the culture,” said Dr Gregory Anderson, Director of the Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages.
Without the Romansh language, who is to say if customs like Chalandamarz, an ancient festival held each 1 March to celebrate the end of winter and coming of spring, will endure; or if traditional local recipes like capuns – spätzle wrapped in greens – will be forgotten? “Romansh contributes in its own way to a multilingual Switzerland,” says Daniel Telli, head of the Unit Lingua. “And on a different level, the death of a language implies the loss of a unique way to see and describe the world.”
(Dena Roché. www.bbc.com, 28.06.2018. Adaptado.)
In the fragment from the second paragraph “Language exists to convey a people’s culture to the next generation, so it makes sense that the Swiss are protective of Romansh.”, the term underlined introduces
Questão 45 4000731FMJ 2021
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What Does It Mean to Tear Down a Statue?
Protesters throwing the statue of the slave trader Edward Colston into a harbour.
Statues of historical figures, including slave traders and Christopher Columbus, are being toppled throughout the U.S. and around the world. This follows years of debate about public display of Confederate symbols. We interviewed the art historian Erin L. Thompson about the topic. Read the excerpt from the interview.
Q. What are some of the issues that arise when we talk about statues being torn down?
A. We have as humans been making monuments to glorify people and ideas since we started making art, and since we started making statues, other people have torn them down. So it’s not surprising that we are seeing people rebelling against ideas that are represented by these statues today.
Q. What do the recent attacks on statues tell us about the protests themselves?
A. The current attacks on statues are a sign that what’s in question is not just our future but our past, as a nation, as a society. These attacks show that we need to question the way we understand the world, even the past, in order to get to a better future.
Q. What’s a statue?
A. I think a statue is a bid for immortality. It’s a way of solidifying an idea and making it present to other people. It’s not the statues themselves but the point of view that they represent. And these [the ones being destroyed] are statues in public places, right? So these are statues claiming that this version of history is the public version of history.
Also, many Confederate statues are made out of bronze, a metal that you can melt down. The ancient Greeks made their major monuments out of bronze. Hardly any of these survived because as soon as regimes changed, as soon as there was war, it got melted down and made into money or a statue of somebody else.
We have been in a period of peace and prosperity — not peace for everybody, but the U.S. hasn’t been invaded, we’ve had enough money to maintain statues. So our generation thinks of public art as something that will always be around. But this is a very ahistorical point of view. I wish that what is happening now with statues being torn down didn’t have to happen this way. But there have been peaceful protests against many of these statues which have come to nothing. So if people lose hope in the possibility of a peaceful resolution, they’re going to find other means.
(www.nytimes.com, 11.06.2020. Adaptado.)
O trecho “the point of view that they represent”, no contexto da resposta à terceira pergunta, pode corresponder, em português, a:
Questão 38 399925EEAR 2017/2
Read the text and answer question.
The Bottom Line on Facebook Depression
 Facebook, the most popular social media platform, does
not make people more depressed on its own. Instead, what
the research shows is that Facebook – when used as a
surveillance device – leads to a greater risk of feelings of
 envy. And the more those feelings of envy increase, the more
likely it is for a person to start feeling depressed.
The key to stopping these feelings is to not use Facebook
primarily as a surveillance method to spy on your family and
friends’ lives. Instead, use it as a social network where you
 share your own information, photos and updates, as well as
consume other’s updates and shares.
Healthy use of Facebook will protect you against the
possibility of feeling more depressed after using it. It’s a
simple thing you can try for yourself – especially if you feel
 more envious after checking Facebook.
Fonte: Psych Central – World of Psychology
Reading the text leads to the conclusion that Facebook
Questão 18 375317UNIMONTES 2° Etapa 2015
Snake “not guilty of killing Cleopatra”
 The story that Cleopatra, ancient queen of Egypt, was killed by a snake bite has been rejected as
“impossible” by University of Manchester academics.
Egyptologists and snake experts have combined to examine the plausibility of the tale of the queen
being killed by a cobra hidden in a basket of figs.
 They believe a snake big enough to kill the queen and two maids would not have been small enough
to be concealed.
They also challenge the credibility of three consecutive fatal bites.
Cleopatra, who died at the age of 39 in 30BC, was a ruler of Egypt who became embroiled in power
struggles within the Roman empire.
 But her story and her death have become part of popular legend, portrayed in fictional form from
Hollywood epics to Carry On films and television comedy. [...]
From Roman sources onwards, her death has often been attributed to a poisonous snake or “asp”,
with the queen using the fatal bite as a way of ending her own life.
But Egyptologist Joyce Tyldesley and Andrew Gray, curator of herpetology at Manchester Museum,
 say the supposed culprit – a cobra – would have been too physically big to be concealed in the way that has
They are typically 5-6ft long and can grow to 8ft (2.5m), and the Manchester experts reject the idea
such a snake could be hidden in the way suggested.
Even if such a snake had been smuggled in to Cleopatra, they say it would have been very unlikely
 that it could have killed Cleopatra and two of her servants in quick succession.
“Not only are cobras too big, but there’s just a 10% chance you would die from a snake bite: most
bites are dry bites that don’t inject venom,” said Mr Gray.
“That’s not to say they aren’t dangerous: the venom causes necrosis and will certainly kill you, but
 “So it would be impossible to use a snake to kill two or three people one after the other.”
“Snakes use venom to protect themselves and for hunting – so they conserve their venom and use it
in times of need.”
Dr Tyldesley, author of Cleopatra: Egypt’s Last Queen, is a contributor to a free online course – a
Mooc – about ancient Egypt made by the university.
 The course, A History of Ancient Egypt, is being launched next week and will study Egypt from
before the pharaohs through the relationships with Greece and Rome and ending with Cleopatra.
(Disponível em: <http://www.bbc.com>. Acesso em: 2 nov. 2015. Adaptado.)
No trecho “So it would be impossible to use a snake to kill two or three people one after the other.” (linha 25), a conjunção so introduz a ideia de
Questão 44 45165UNIFESP 2011
To Scientists, Laughter Is No Joke - It’s Serious
March 31, 2010.
So a scientist walks into a shopping mall to watch people laugh. There’s no punchline. Laughter is a serious scientific subject, one that researchers are still trying to figure out. Laughing is primal, our first way of communicating. Apes laugh. So do dogs and rats. Babies laugh long before they speak. No one teaches you how to laugh. You just do. And often you laugh involuntarily, in a specific rhythm and in certain spots in conversation.
You may laugh at a prank on April Fools’ Day. But surprisingly, only 10 to 15 percent of laughter is the result of someone making a joke, said Baltimore neuroscientist Robert Provine, who has studied laughter for decades. Laughter is mostly about social responses rather than reaction to a joke. “Laughter above all else is a social thing,’’ Provine said. “The requirement for laughter is another person.’’
Over the years, Provine, a professor with the University of Maryland Baltimore County, has boiled laughter down to its basics. “All language groups laugh ‘ha-ha-ha’ basically the same way,’’ he said. “Whether you speak Mandarin, French or English, everyone will understand laughter. ... There’s a pattern generator in our brain that produces this sound.’’
Each “ha’’ is about one-15th of a second, repeated every fifth of a second, he said. Laugh faster or slower than that and it sounds more like panting or something else. Deaf people laugh without hearing, and people on cell phones laugh without seeing, illustrating that laughter isn’t dependent on a single sense but on social interactions, said Provine, author of the book “Laughter: A Scientific Investigation.’’
“It’s joy, it’s positive engagement with life,’’ said Jaak Panksepp, a Bowling Green University psychology professor. “It’s deeply social.’’ And it’s not just a people thing either. Chimps tickle each other and even laugh when another chimp pretends to tickle them. By studying rats, Panksepp and other scientists can figure out what’s going on in the brain during laughter. And it holds promise for human ills.
Northwestern biomedical engineering professor Jeffrey Burgdorf has found that laughter in rats produces an insulin-like growth factor chemical that acts as an antidepressant and anxietyreducer. He thinks the same thing probably happens in humans, too. This would give doctors a new chemical target in the brain in their effort to develop drugs that fight depression and anxiety in people. Even so, laughter itself hasn’t been proven to be the best medicine, experts said.
No trecho do terceiro parágrafo – Whether you speak Mandarin, French or English, everyone will understand laughter. – a palavra whether pode ser substituída, sem alteração de sentido, por
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