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Questão 9 92171PUC-Rio 2015/2
Teens' compulsive texting can cause neck injury, experts warn
 Dean Fishman, a chiropractor in Florida, was examining an X-ray of a 17-year-old patient's neck in 2009
when he noticed something unusual. The ghostly image of her vertebral column showed a reversal of the
curvature that normally appears in the cervical spine — a degenerative state he'd most often seen in
middle-aged people who had spent several decades of their life in poor posture.
 "That's when I looked over at the patient," Fishman says. She was slumped in her chair, head tilted
downward, madly typing away on her cellphone. When he mentioned to the patient's mother that the
girl's posture could be causing her headaches, he got what he describes as an "emotional response." It
seemed the teen spent much of her life in that position. Right then, Fishman says, "I knew I was on to
 He theorized that prolonged periods of tilting her head downward to peer into her mobile device had
created excessive strain on the cervical spine, causing a repetitive stress injury that ultimately led to
spinal degeneration. He began looking through all the recent X-rays he had of young people — many of
whom had come in for neck pain or headaches — and he saw the same thing: signs of premature
 Fishman coined the term "text neck" to describe the condition and founded the Text Neck Institute (text
neck.com), a place where people can go for information, prevention and treatment.
"The head in neutral has a normal weight" of 10 to 12 pounds, says Fishman, explaining that neutral
position is ears over shoulders with shoulder blades pulled back. "If you start to tilt your head forward,
with gravity and the distance from neutral, the weight starts to increase."
 "When your head tilts forward, you're loading the front of the disks," says Dr. Kenneth Hansraj, study 20
author and chief of spine surgery at New York Spine Surgery & Rehabilitation Medicine. Though the study
didn't look at long-term effects of this position, Hansraj says that, after seeing approximately 30,000
spinal surgery patients, he's witnessed "the way the neck falls apart."
In addition, Fishman says, text-neck posture can lead to pinched nerves, arthritis, bone spurs and
 muscular deformations. "The head and shoulder blades act like a seesaw. When the head goes forward,
the shoulder blades will flare out … and the muscles start to change over time."
Much like tennis elbow doesn't occur only in people who play tennis, text neck isn't exclusive to people
who compulsively send text messages. Hansraj says people in high-risk careers include dentists,
architects and welders, whose heavy helmets make them especially vulnerable. He adds that many daily
 activities involve tilting the head down, but they differ from mobile-device use in intensity and
"Washing dishes is something nobody enjoys, so you do it quickly. And while your head is forward, it's
probably tilted at 30 or 40 degrees," he says. People tend to change position periodically while reading a
book, and they glance up frequently while holding an infant. But mobile devices are typically held with
 the neck flexed forward at 60 degrees or greater, and many users, particularly teens, use them
compulsively. The study reports that people spend an average of two to four hours a day with their heads
tilted at a sharp angle over their smartphones, amounting to 700 to 1,400 hours a year.
To remedy the problem, Hansraj has a simple message: "Keep your head up." While texting or scrolling,
people should raise their mobile devices closer to their line of sight. The Text Neck Institute has
 developed the Text Neck Indicator, an interactive app that alerts users when their smartphones are held 40
at an angle that puts them at risk for text neck.
Fishman also recommends that people take frequent breaks while using their mobile devices, as well as
do exercises that strengthen muscles behind the neck and between the shoulder blades in order to
increase endurance for holding the device properly.
 He adds, "I'm an avid technology user — and I use it in the proper posture."
The expression “in order to” in the fragment “…in order to increase endurance for holding the device properly.” (lines 43-44) introduces an idea of:
Questão 29 96715FATEC 2015/1
Wearable tech for kids coming from LeapFrog
By Doug Gross, CNN
updated 12:57 PM EDT, Thu May 1, 2014
(CNN) – The wearable technology movement is in full effect, and exercise-based activity trackers lead the way. Now, it’s becoming child’s play.
LeapFrog, the maker of education-oriented tablets and apps for children, has unveiled1 LeapBand, a wearable activity tracker designed with kids in mind.
The band fits around the user’s wrist and looks a lot like a kids version of a smartwatch. By performing actions like “walk like a crab,” “spin like a helicopter” or “pop like popcorn,” kids can unlock new games and a group of Pokemon-like “digital pets” on the device.
The band connects to a website or app that lets parents monitor their children’s activities and choose which challenges they can select, and which they can’t.
Moving past smartphones and tablets, wearable tech has become arguably the hottest digital trend in the past year or so.
(http://tinyurl.com/noswsfc Acesso em: 20.07.2014. Adaptado)
1 unveil: revelar, apresentar.
Assinale a alternativa que apresenta o termo like usado como uma conjunção, tal qual em “walk like a crab”, “spin like a helicopter” , “pop like popcorn”.
Questão 95 213895UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2014/2
Brazil plowed billions of dollars into building a railroad across arid backlands, only for the longdelayed project to fall prey to metal scavengers. Curvaceous new public buildings designed by the famed architect Oscar Niemeyer were abandoned right after being constructed. There was even an illfated U.F.O. museum built with federal funds. Its skeletal remains now sit like a lost ship among the weeds.
As Brazil sprints to get ready for the World Cup in June, it has run up against a catalog of delays, some caused by deadly construction accidents at stadiums, and cost overruns. It is building bus and rail systems for spectators that will not be finished until long after the games are done. But the World Cup projects are just a part of a bigger national problem casting a pall over Brazil’s grand ambitions: an array of lavish projects conceived when economic growth was surging that now stand abandoned, stalled or wildly over budget.
Some economists say the troubled projects reveal a crippling bureaucracy, irresponsible allocation of resources and bastions of corruption.
Huge street protests have been aimed at costly new stadiums being built in cities like Manaus and Brasília, whose paltry fan bases are almost sure to leave a sea of empty seats after the World Cup events are finished, adding to concerns that even more white elephants will emerge from the tournament.
“The fiascos are multiplying, revealing disarray that is regrettably systemic,” said Gil Castello Branco, director of Contas Abertas, a Brazilian watchdog group that scrutinizes public budgets. “We’re waking up to the reality that immense resources have been wasted on extravagant projects when our public schools are still a mess and raw sewage is still in our streets.”
The growing list of troubled development projects includes a $3.4 billion network of concrete canals in the drought-plagued hinterland of northeast Brazil — which was supposed to be finished in 2010 — as well as dozens of new wind farms idled by a lack of transmission lines and unfinished luxury hotels blighting Rio de Janeiro’s skyline.
Economists surveyed by the nation’s central bank see Brazil’s economy growing just 1.63 percent this year, down from 7.5 percent in 2010, making 2014 the fourth straight year of slow growth.
President Dilma Rousseff’s supporters contend that the public spending has worked, helping to keep unemployment at historical lows and preventing what would have been a much worse economic slowdown had the government not pumped its considerable resources into infrastructure development.
Still, a growing chorus of critics argues that the inability to finish big infrastructure projects reveals weaknesses in Brazil’s model of state capitalism. First, they say, Brazil gives extraordinary influence to a web of state-controlled companies, banks and pension funds to invest in ill-advised projects. Then other bastions of the vast public bureaucracy cripple projects with audits and lawsuits.
“Some ventures never deserved public money in the first place,” said Sérgio Lazzarini, an economist at Insper, a São Paulo business school, pointing to the millions in state financing for the overhaul of the Glória hotel in Rio, owned until recently by a mining tycoon, Eike Batista. The project was left unfinished, unable to open for the World Cup, when Mr. Batista’s business empire crumbled last year. “For infrastructure projects which deserve state support and get it,” Mr. Lazzarini continued, “there’s the daunting task of dealing with the risks that the state itself creates.”
The Transnordestina, a railroad begun in 2006 here in northeast Brazil, illustrates some of the pitfalls plaguing projects big and small. Scheduled to be finished in 2010 at a cost of about $1.8 billion, the railroad, designed to stretch more than 1,000 miles, is now expected to cost at least $3.2 billion, with most financing from state banks. Officials say it should be completed around 2016. But with work sites abandoned because of audits and other setbacks months ago in and around Paulistana, a town in Piauí, one of Brazil’s poorest states, even that timeline seems optimistic. Long stretches where freight trains were already supposed to be running stand deserted. Wiry vaqueiros, or cowboys, herd cattle in the shadow of ghostly railroad bridges that tower 150 feet above parched valleys. “Thieves are pillaging metal from the work sites,” said Adailton Vieira da Silva, 42, an electrician who labored with thousands of others before work halted last year. “Now there are just these bridges left in the middle of nowhere.”
Brazil’s transportation minister, César Borges, expressed exasperation with the delays in finishing the railroad, which is needed to transport soybean harvests to port. He listed the bureaucracies that delay projects like the Transnordestina: the Federal Court of Accounts; the Office of the Comptroller General; an environmental protection agency; an institute protecting archaeological patrimony; agencies protecting the rights of indigenous peoples and descendants of escaped slaves; and the Public Ministry, a body of independent prosecutors. Still, Mr. Borges insisted, “Projects get delayed in countries around the world, not just Brazil.”
Some economists contend that the way Brazil is investing may be hampering growth instead of supporting it. The authorities encouraged energy companies to build wind farms, but dozens cannot operate because they lack transmission lines to connect to the electricity grid. Meanwhile, manufacturers worry over potential electricity rationing as reservoirs at hydroelectric dams run dry amid a drought.
Then there is the extraterrestrial museum in Varginha, a city in southeast Brazil where residents claimed to have seen an alien in 1996. Officials secured federal money to build the museum, but now all that remains of the unfinished project is the rusting carcass of what looks like a flying saucer. “That museum,” said Roberto Macedo, an economist at the University of São Paulo, “is an insult to both extraterrestrials and the terrestrial beings like ourselves who foot the bill for yet another project failing to deliver.”
Adapted from www.nytimes.com/April 12, 2014.
The sentence “…immense resources have been wasted on extravagant projects when our public schools are still a mess and raw sewage is still in our streets” contains a/an
Questão 28 230467UESB Caderno 1 2016
Downshifting means working towards simple living
by making conscious choices to leave materialism behind
and move on to a more sustainable lifestyle. It does not
mean simply cutting back and trying to live the same life
 only with less money. Downshifting requires prioritizing,
an adjustment in values, and a totally different mindset…
not just a change to a more frugal way of living.
People decide to downshift for a variety of reasons.
Many want to get away from “living competitively”… job
 stress, consumerism, and feeling they have to live up to
someone else’s expectations. Other people downshift
because of a life changing experience, health reasons,
or a crisis in the family. Often downshifting comes out of
a wish to conserve natural resources. Whatever the
 reason, downshifting isn’t limited to any age or income
Once the decision to downshift has been made,
then comes the question of how. Usually the first step is
to create more free time for yourself by working fewer
 hours. This may involve something as simple as cutting
down on overtime, or it may involve changing jobs
or deciding to work at home. There is no one solution that
fits every circumstance because everyone’s situation and
needs are different. Taking your time to analyze your
 own options will prevent you from making any hasty spur
of the moment decisions that you might later regret.
Hand in hand with a change in the number of hours
worked is the need to consume less and therefore spend
less. As you prioritize your true needs and wants, you
 will find that many of the “things” you used to spend
money on no longer seem important.
Here are some downshifting ideas to get you started,
but keep in mind that living a simple life is not about selfdenial…
you should not give up something that is really
 important to you.
•Limit the number of services you purchase. Anytime
you can do something for yourself instead of paying
someone to do it for you, you can save considerable
amounts of money.
 •Eat out infrequently, if at all. It is easy to get in the
habit of stopping for a quick meal instead of taking the
time to cook dinner, but this is one area where there can
be really big savings, plus the real food you cook at home
is always much healthier.
 •Change the way you shop for groceries.
Comparison shopping and buying to restock your pantry
and your refrigerator when items you use regularly are
on sale results in huge savings.
•Live green. Recycle, start composting, and limit
 what you throw away. Conserve fuel, electricity and other
resources to help reduce your carbon footprint.
Over the last several years there has been a huge
change in attitudes and values. For many people, personal
growth, an enjoyment of life and feeling a real connection
 to family while keeping a healthy balance between work
and free time have become more important than titles
and big incomes.
Disponível em: <www.choosingvoluntarysimplicity.com/downshifting-toa- simpler-life/>. Acesso em: 12 out. 2015.
The word on the left expresses what is stated on the right in
Questão 38 233812UESB Caderno 1 2015
The office of the Convention on International Trade
in Endangered Species (known as CITES) says rates of
elephant poaching and trade in illegal ivory remain very
high. In a new report, CITES warns that Africa’s elephants
 face an immediate threat to their survival because of
continued high levels of poaching for their ivory.
Twenty thousand elephants were illegally killed in
Africa last year, the report shows. That figure far exceeds
the growth rate of the elephant population. In some regions
 of Africa elephants are threatened with extinction.
The report also documents a clear increase in the
number of large seizures -amounts of over 500kg — of
ivory in Africa. For the first time there were more such
seizures in Africa than in Asia, an indication, the report
 suggests, of the involvement of transnational organized
crime in the illegal ivory trade.
And while elephant conservationists do believe that
increased ivory confiscation is a sign that law enforcement
is improving, they also point out that demand for ivory
 remains very high, and that even in some of the
monitored elephant populations, poaching is actually
FOULKES, Imogen. Poaching threatens survival of African elephants. Disponível em: <www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learning english/language/wordsinthenews/2014/06/140616_witn_ivory. shtml>. Acesso em: 13 out. 2014.
Considering language use in the text, it’s correct to say:
Questão 48 714701URCA 2° Dia 2015/1
THE BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Regular physical activity is one of the most important things you can do for your health. If you're not sure about becoming active or boosting your level of physical activity because you're afraid of getting hurt, the good news is that moderateintensity aerobic activity, like brisk walking, is generally safe for most people.
Both diet and physical activity play a critical role in controlling your weight. You gain weight when the calories you burn, including those burned during physical activity, are less than the calories you eat or drink. When it comes to weight management, people vary greatly in how much physical activity they need. You may need to be more active than others to achieve or maintain a healthy weight.
Work your way up to 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, or an equivalent mix of the two each week. Strong scientific evidence shows that physical activity can help you maintain your weight over time. However, the exact amount of physical activity needed to do this is not clear since it varies greatly from person to person. It's possible that you may need to do more than the equivalent of 150 minutes of moderateintensity activity a week to maintain your weight.
You will need a high amount of physical activity unless you also adjust your diet and reduce the amount of calories you're eating and drinking. Getting to and staying at a healthy weight requires both regular physical activity and a healthy eating plan.
Heart disease and stroke are two of the leading causes of death in the United States. But following the Guidelines and getting at least 150 minutes a week (2 hours and 30 minutes) of moderate intensity aerobic activity can put you at a lower risk for these diseases. You can reduce your risk even further with more physical activity. Regular physical activity can also lower your blood pressure and improve your cholesterol levels.
Regular physical activity can reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a condition in which you have some combination of too much fat around the waist, high blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, or high blood sugar. Research shows that lower rates of these conditions are seen with 120 to 150 minutes (2 hours to 2 hours and 30 minutes) a week of at least moderateintensity aerobic activity. And the more physical activity you do, the lower your risk will be.
Regular physical activity can help control your blood glucose levels.
From: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/health/. Accessed on 10/18/2014
Check the alternative which brings the word like (first paragraph) being used with the same function as in the first paragraph of the text.
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