Questão 13 3630431AFA 2020
The end of life on Earth?
It weighted about 10,000 tons, entered the
atmosphere at a speed of 64,000 km/h and exploded
over a city with a blast of 500 kilotons. But on 15
February 2013, we were lucky. The metereorite that
 showered pieces of rock over Chelyabinsk, Russia, was
relatively small, at only about 17 metres wide. Although
many people were injured by falling glass, the damage
was nothing compared to what had happened in Siberia
nearly one hundred years ago, when a relatively small
 object (approximately 50 metres in diameter) exploded in
mid-air over a forest region, flattening about 80 million
trees. If it had exploded over a city such as Moscow or
London, millions of people would have been killed.
By a strange coincidence, the same day that the
 meteorite terrified the people of Chelyabinsk, another
50m-wide asteroid passed relatively close to Earth.
Scientists were expecting that visit and know that the
asteroid will return to fly close by us in 2046, but the
Russian meteorite earlier in the day had been too small
 for anyone to spot.
Most scientists agree that comets and asteroids
pose the biggest natural threat to human existence. It
was probably a large asteroid or comet colliding with
Earth which wiped out the dinosaurs about 65 million
 years ago. An enormous object, 10 to 16 km in diameter,
struck the Yucatan region in Mexico with the force of 100
megatons. That is the equivalent of one Hiroshima bomb
for every person alive on Earth today.
Many scientists, including the late Stephen
 Hawking, say that any comet or asteroid greater than
20km in diameter that hits Earth will result in the
complete destruction of complex life, including all
animals and most plants. As we have seen even a much
smaller asteroid can cause great damage.
 The Earth has been kept fairly safe for the last 65
million years by good fortune and the massive
gravitational field of the planet Jupiter. Our cosmic
guardian, with its stable circular orbit far from the sun,
sweeps up and scatters away most of the dangerous
 comets and asteroids which might cross Earth’s orbit.
After the Chelyabinsk meteorite, scientists are now
monitoring potential hazards even more carefully but, as
far as they know, there is no danger in the foreseeable
 Types of space rocks
• Comet – a ball of rock and ice that sends out a
tail of gas and dust behind it. Bright comets only appear
in our visible night sky about once every ten years.
• Asteroid – a rock a few feet to several kms in
 diameter. Unlike comets, asteroids have no tail. Most
are to small to cause any damage and burn up in the
• Meteoroid – part of an asteroid or comet.
• Meteorite – what a meteoroid is called when it
 hits Earth.
Taken from: http://learningenglishteens.britishcouncil.org - Access on 29/06/2020
“Which” (line 40) refers to
Questão 56 1587320IFRR Superior 2015/2
Controlling the global obesity epidemic
At the other end of the malnutrition scale, obesity is one of today’s most blatantly visible – yet most neglected – public health problems. Paradoxically coexisting with undernutrition, an escalating global epidemic of overweight and obesity – “globesity” – is taking over many parts of the world. If immediate action is not taken, millions will suffer from an array of serious health disorders.
Obesity is a complex condition, one with serious social and psychological dimensions, that affects virtually all age and socioeconomic groups and threatens to overwhelm both developed and developing countries. In 1995, there were an estimated 200 million obese adults worldwide and another 18 million under-five children classified as overweight. As of 2000, the number of obese adults has increased to over 300 million. Contrary to conventional wisdom, the obesity epidemic is not restricted to industrialized societies; in developing countries, it is estimated that over 115 million people suffer from obesity-related problems.
Generally, although men may have higher rates of overweight, women have higher rates of obesity. For both, obesity poses a major risk for serious diet-related noncommunicable diseases, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke, and certain forms of cancer. Its health consequences range from increased risk of premature death to serious chronic conditions that reduce the overall quality of life.
The response: making healthy choices easy choices
World Health Organization began sounding the alarm in the 1990s, spearheading a series of expert and technical consultations. Public awareness campaigns were also initiated to sensitize policymakers, private sector partners, medical professionals and the public at large. Aware that obesity is predominantly a “social and environmental disease”, WHO is helping to develop strategies that will make healthy choices easier to make.
In collaboration with the University of Sydney (Australia), WHO is calculating the worldwide economic impact of overweight and obesity. It is also working with the University of Auckland (New Zealand) to analyse the impact that globalization and rapid socioeconomic transition have on nutrition and to identify the main political, socioeconomic, cultural and physical factors which promote obesogenic environments.
Na frase “Its health consequences range from increased risk of premature death to serious chronic conditions that reduce the overall quality of life.”, o pronome relativo em negrito pode ser substituído sem prejuízo ao sentido da frase por:
Questão 49 5950125PUC-MG 2021
Why do we buy into the 'cult' of overwork?
By Bryan Lufkin, 9th May 2021
Although many of us associate overly ambitious workaholism with the 1980s and the finance industry, the tendency to devote ourselves to work and glamourize long-hours culture remains as pervasive as ever. In fact, it is expanding into more sectors and professions, in slightly different packaging. Overwork isn't a phenomenon exclusive to Silicon Valley or Wall Street. People work long hours all over the world, for many different reasons
In Japan, a culture of overwork can be traced back to the 1950s, when the government pushed hard for the country to be rebuilt quickly after World War Two. In Arab League countries, burnout is high among medical professionals, possibly because its 22 members are developing nations with overburdened healthcare systems, studies suggest. Reasons for overwork also depend on industry. Some of the earliest researchers on burnout in the 1970s asserted that many people in jobs geared toward helping others, like employees in clinics or crisis-intervention centers, tended to work long hours that led to emotional and physical exhaustion – a trend which is shown up in the pandemic, too. But millions of us overwork because somehow, we think it’s exciting – a status symbol that puts us on the path to success, whether we define that by wealth or an Instagram post that makes it seem like we're living a dream life with a dream job. Romanticization of work seems to be an especially common practice among "knowledge workers" in the middle and upper classes. In 2014, the New Yorker called this devotion to overwork "a cult".
According to Anat Lechner, clinical associate professor of management at New York University. "We glorify the lifestyle, and the lifestyle is: you breathe something, you sleep with something, you wake up and work on it all day long, then you go to sleep. Again, and again and again."
Adapted from: Home - BBC Worklife.
The word which in “which is shown up in the pandemic too” refers to
Questão 12 961612UEA - SIS 2ª Etapa 2018
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
Heading the soccer ball may be bad for young brains
The question of whether young children should use their heads on the soccer field has been a debatable one in recent years. In 2015, U.S. Youth Soccer, the organization that oversees most of the American leagues for children and teenagers, announced a ban on heading in games and practices by participants younger than 11, citing concerns that the play might contribute to brain concussions.
In response, some soccer authorities pointed out that young players would be late to learn an essential soccer skill and that concussions from heading are rare in that age group.
Now a study presented last month at the annual convention of the American College of Sports Medicine may help quell doubts about the current regulations, which went into effect in 2016.
(Gretchen Reynolds. www.nytimes.com, 19.06.2018. Adaptado.)
No trecho do terceiro parágrafo “which went into effect in 2016”, o termo sublinhado refere-se a
Questão 64 637390UFN Inverno 2015
How to learn a foreign language on a budget
You don’t need expensive lessons to start – try smartphone apps, foreign TV and radio, online guides and your local library
Wednesday 18 February 2015
You don’t have to break the bank to enjoy the value of learning another language.
 While the benefits that come from learning a second
language may in theory be priceless, many are put off by
visions of shelling out huge amounts on expensive
resources, tuition or immersion courses. The good news
 is that it is actually possible to learn on a budget. Here are
a few tips for spending less and learning more:
Many new language learners now start with
smartphone apps like Duolingo and Memrise which are
 free. These apps start you off with vocabulary and basic
sentences in minutes, and their game-like interface is
ideal for anyone whose last contact with a foreign
language was a terrifying oral school exam. But you
should also make sure that you get plenty of natural input
 in your target language. Tune in to international radio
stations on TuneIn Radio. (…)
Where to get materials for free
For real results, a step-by-step course will help you
build up skills. If you like online learning, my best tip is
 to check out whether your target country’s international
TV or radio channel offers a structured language course.
These courses are produced by broadcasting
professionals and offer well-designed courses going from
beginner to advanced level. They feature multimedia
 materials and even soap operas from big names like
Deutsche Welle, TV5 Monde and Russia Today. If you
prefer materials aimed at English native speakers, the
BBC’s GCSE Revision area Bitesize has some of the
most effective online revision aids I have seen for Irish,
 Welsh, French, Spanish, and German. (…) Don’t forget
that pen and paper are also cheap and invaluable language
learning tools. Use them to keep track of new words,
write down new sentences in full and create your own
flash cards. (…)It’s also a good idea to visit your local
 library and let them surprise you. Libraries have access
to a large inter-library loan network, so they can get hold
of most courses you want. They also have huge amounts
of travel guides and phrasebooks to keep you inspired.
Share your goal with others
 The internet has good enough resources to let you
achieve a decent level in most languages from the
comfort of your home, but for many of us, learning in
isolation is difficult and boring. Even if it’s scary to walk
into a new room of language lovers, leave the house and
 connect with other learners right from the start. Making
just one friend who shares your goal or interest in another
language can make the difference between a fad that you
drop after 12 weeks and a new habit for life. (…)
Spend only where it pays off
 If you do decide to take your language learning
further, consider investing in small group or one-to-one
tuition. When you hire a language teacher, the money you
spend should buy you unrivalled personal attention. The
accountability that comes with lessons creates a boost of
 ongoing motivation that is almost impossible to find for
Most private tutors will offer you a free or cheap trial
lesson. These don’t mean there is a hidden obligation to
buy. Instead, a good tutor will want to learn as much as
 possible about you before charging you money. They are
all different and what is simple and comfortable for one
person might be difficult for the next. (…) Once you get
started, it’s easy to get past the idea that studying a
foreign language comes with a big financial burden.
 Remember to take your time and think of your new
language as something you will be learning for life, not
just for the next six months. There is only one way to fail
at language learning, and that is to stop completely.
While the benefits that come from learning a second language may in theory be priceless, many are put off by visions of shelling out huge amounts on expensive resources, tuition or immersion courses. (l. 1)
But you should also make sure that you get plenty of natural input in your target language. (l. 14)
If you like online learning, my best tip is to check out whether your target country’s international TV or radio channel offers a structured language course. (l. 19)
They feature multimedia materials and even soap operas from big names like Deutsche Welle, TV5 Monde and RussiaToday. (l. 25)
Instead, a good tutor will want to learn as much as possible about you before charging you money. (l. 59)
Os conetivos negritados nos excertos acima expressam, respectivamente, a ideia de
Questão 39 257985Unit-SE Medicina - Caderno 1 2014
Life in the age of internet addiction
Just one more tweet, dad!
Anyone who spends their day staring at screens
can speak to the modern-day epidemic of eye fatigue.
But what is our digital obsession doing to our brains?
Researchers have noted a rise in something called Digital
 Attention Disorder — the addiction to social networks
and computers in general.
How does it work? More than 50 years ago,
psychologist B.F. Skinner was experimenting on rats
and pigeons, and noticed that the unpredictability of
 reward was a major motivator for animals. If a reward
arrives either predictably or too infrequently, the animal
eventually loses interest. But when there was anticipation
of a reward that comes with just enough frequency, the
animals’ brains would consistently release dopamine, a
 neurotransmitter in the brain that (basically) regulates
What does this have to do with the internet? Some
researchers believe that intermittent reinforcement — in
the form of texts, tweets, and various other social
 media — may be working on our brains the same way
rewards did on Skinner’s rats. “Internet addiction is the
same as any other addiction — excessive release of
dopamine,” says Hilarie Cash, executive director of the
reStart program for internet addiction and recovery, a
 Seattle-area rehab program that helps wean people off
the internet. “Addiction is addiction. Whether it’s
gambling, cocaine, alcohol, or Facebook.”
“The vast majority of the American population is
mildly addicted to technology, and our clinic treats only
 very serious cases,” she told me in a phone interview.
“Most of the people that come are young adult males
around the ages of 18 to 30 who spend a lot of time on
the internet. Their health is poor, their social relationships
have turned to crap, they have no social confidence or
 real-world friends. They don’t date. They don’t work.”
Internet and video game addiction starts young.
Most young men are given computer or video games
when they are five or six years old and therefore their
childhood development is profoundly wired for these
 activities. It’s quite different to drug addicts and alcoholics
who are usually exposed to drugs or alcohol closer to
the age of 15. Internet addicts usually have 15 to 20
years of addiction on them due to starting younger.
The problem isn’t just young men, either. “Women
 are getting addicted, too,” Cash told me. ”Although
women usually become addicted later in life and, more
often than not, directly to social media, while men are
more adept to becoming addicted to multiplayer games.
Women seem to juggle addiction and life better than
Life in the age of internet addiction. Disponível em: . Acesso em:12 out. 2013.
The word or expression from the text expresses what is stated on the right in alternative