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Questão 20 1518785CESMAC 1° Dia Medicina 2020/1
Read the text below and answer the following question based on it.
Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial.
In a prospective, randomised, controlled trial to determine whether comprehensive lifestyle changes affect coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year, 28 patients were assigned to an experimental group (low-fat vegetarian diet, stopping smoking, stress management training, and moderate exercise) and 20 to a usual-care control group. 195 coronary artery lesions were analysed by quantitative coronary angiography. The average percentage diameter stenosis regressed from 40.0 (SD 16.9)% to 37.8 (16.5)% in the experimental group yet progressed from 42.7 (15.5)% to 46.1 (18.5)% in the control group. When only lesions greater than 50% stenosed were analysed, the average percentage diameter stenosis regressed from 61.1 (8.8)% to 55.8 (11.0)% in the experimental group and progressed from 61.7 (9.5)% to 64.4 (16.3)% in the control group. Overall, 82% of experimental-group patients had an average change towards regression. Comprehensive lifestyle changes may be able to bring about regression of even severe coronary atherosclerosis after only 1 year, without use of lipidlowering drugs.
Adaptado de: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1973470 Acessado em 27 de outubro de 2017.
In “Comprehensive lifestyle changes may be able to bring about regression…” may expresses:
Questão 9 5944818PUC-Rio 2020
How robot carers could be the future for lonely elderly people
Alessandro Di Nuovo
December 6, 2018
The film Robot and Frank imagined a near-future
where robots could do almost everything humans
could. The elderly title character was given a “robot
butler” to help him continue living on his own. The
robot was capable of everything from cooking and
 cleaning to socializing and, it turned out, burglary. This
kind of science fiction may turn out to be remarkably
prescient. As growing numbers of elderly people
require care, researchers believe that robots could be
 one way to address the overwhelming demand. But
even though robots might be able to provide care and,
in some cases, social interaction, many wonder if they
really are the right solution to this uniquely human
 Loneliness and social isolation are already
problems for many seniors and are even linked to
cognitive decline and a higher death rate. With the
population of seniors expected to rise, many worry
that experiences of loneliness will increase, especially
 if access to care is even more limited.
But despite concerns, early studies already show
that social robots – autonomous robots trained to
interact and communicate with humans – really could
address issues of care and social interaction. The
 majority of robotics researchers are largely in favour
of introducing robotic technology on a wider scale
and believe it could reduce loneliness and increase
independence in elderly patients. The Japanese
government even supports introducing robots in
 care homes to solve the country’s ageing population
problem. However, many strongly recommend
carefully balancing the care benefits against the
A class of social robots – mobile robotic
 telepresence systems (MRTs) – have already been
shown to generate positive social interactions with
elderly patients. MRTs are essentially video screens
on wheels raised to head height that can be controlled
remotely using a simple smartphone app. They allow
 relatives and social workers to “visit” elderly people
more often, even if they live in rural or distant places.
Elderly patients don’t need to operate the device,
leaving them free to interact with their social worker
or family. Communication still happens through a
 computer screen, but the robot’s physical presence
mimics face-to-face interaction for elderly people.
Research has shown that people reacted more
positively when talking with someone through an MRT
than through a regular video call or computer avatar –
 especially lonely people. However, MRTs still require
a human operator, which limits the amount of social
interaction seniors can have daily.
To tackle this, developers worldwide have
started creating robot companions programmed with
 advanced artificial intelligence (AI), which can interact
with people on their own. Some examples include
pet-like companion robots, including Aibo and Paro,
which are made by Japanese developers, and MiRo,
which is manufactured in the UK. Other humanoid
 robots, such as the Care-O-bot and Pepper, are able
to provide more complex and comprehensive care.
Though “pet” robots offer limited interaction, they
have proved as effective – or even more so – than
real pets in reducing loneliness for elderly people in
 care homes. Robotic dogs introduced in one UK care
home this year were reported to bring happiness and
comfort to residents.
On the other hand, humanoid robots are already
advanced enough to provide much-needed care to
 elderly people. These robots can pick things up and
move independently, and have a more natural, human
way of interacting, for example, using arm and hand
gestures. More advanced versions have additional
sensors and devices, including touchscreens. Many
 elderly people, finding the touchscreens hard to use,
preferred giving spoken commands to the robot and
reading its response off the screen. But for those with
age-related hearing loss or vision impairment, having
the option to use the touchscreen was indispensable.
 Humanoid robots are still being developed, so their
capabilities are still limited. Moreover, studies of
humanoid robots have mainly focused on evaluating
how well the technology functions without really
considering the social impact. There is also a general
 assumption that it will naturally reduce loneliness.
Though research into social robots is just
beginning, we do know they can provide some solutions
to the challenges mounted by ageing populations, and
could even help reduce social isolation and loneliness.
 At this point, humans are still better in providing care
and social contact to the elderly, but robots might
be able to fill any gaps, especially as technologies
continue to improve. However, before social robots
can be fully integrated into care homes, researchers
 and service providers must address public anxiety
and make it clear that robots are designed to assist
social workers, not replace them. As long as humans
remain in full control to prevent any danger, robots
might well be the future of care.
Available at:<https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgetsand-tech/features/robot-carer-elderly-people-lonelinessageing-population-care-homes-a8659801.html>. Retrieved on: July 2, 2019. Adapted.
In the fragment “researchers and service providers must address public anxiety and make it clear that robots are designed to assist social workers, not replace them.” (lines 94-97), the verb form must conveys an idea of
Questão 31 1709495EN 1° Dia 2019
Which option completes the text below correctly”?
Tips for a Healthy Diet
You eat vegetables every day. Vegetables contain essential vitamins and substances that are very important for your organism.
You only eat what you like to eat because to stay healthy you also need to eat what your organism needs you to eat.
(Adapted from hitps://nexter.org/top-5-tips-for-a-healthy-diet)
Questão 26 2739105FATEC 2019/2
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
The Most Important Skill For 21st–Century Success
By Kevin H. Johnson
The world of work is changing so rapidly, as emerging technologies like artificial intelligence, machine learning, and automation change job requirements. As technologies continue to evolve and business conditions shift, employees must stay in learning mode so their skills don’t lose currency.
It’s one thing to keep up with skills as they’re changing in the here and now. It’s a whole different challenge to prepare yourself for tools and technologies that may exist only in the minds of engineers, if at all.
There’s so much uncertainty and ambiguity around the future of work, it doesn’t matter your industry or job function. That’s why, when anyone asks what the next “hot” skill will be, I say it’s the same skill that will serve people today, tomorrow, and far into the future — the ability to learn.
When people embrace lifelong learning, assimilating new skills isn’t a source of fear and stress — it’s just another part of their career journey. Separating process from outcome will make you a better learner too, as you get less fixated on immediate mastery of a skill and more appreciative of how moving outside your comfort zone helps you grow as a person.
A learning mindset also makes it less likely you’ll be thrown off or immobilized when a project changes scope or a job function undergoes transformation. While others scramble to figure out where to go from here, lifelong learners maintain momentum and productivity.
https://tinyurl.com/ya42xtrr Acesso em: 15.03.2019. Adaptado. Original colorido.
O verbo may, na oração do segundo parágrafo “It’s a whole different challenge to prepare yourself for tools and technologies that may exist only in the minds of engineers, if at all”, indica
Questão 34 390663EEAR 2019/1
Read the text to answer question.
Air Traffic Controllers
Air traffic controllers coordinate the movement of air
traffic, to ensure that aircraft stay safe distances apart.
Air traffic controllers typically do the following:
 - Issue landing and takeoff instructions to pilots;
- Monitor and direct the movement of aircraft on the
ground and in the air, using radar, computers, or visual
- Control all ground traffic at airports, including baggage
 vehicles and airport workers;
- Manage communications by transferring control of
departing flights to traffic control centers and accepting
control of arriving flights;
- Provide information to pilots, such as weather updates,
 runway closures, and other critical information; and
- Alert airport response staff, in the event of an aircraft
Air traffic controllers' primary concern is safety, but they
also must direct aircraft efficiently to minimize delays. They
 manage the flow of aircraft into and out of the airport
airspace, guide pilots during takeoff and landing, and monitor
aircraft, as they travel through the skies.
Controllers usually manage multiple aircraft at the same
time and must make quick decisions to ensure the safety of
 the aircraft. For example, a controller might direct one
aircraft on its landing approach, while providing another
aircraft with weather information.
Adapted from: ttps://collegegrad.com/careers/air-traffic-controllers
The words underlined in the text (lines 19 and 25) express, respectively
Questão 19 608931UFT Tarde 2019
Read the following text in order to answer QUESTION
Pluto should be reclassified as a planet, experts say
The reason Pluto lost its planet status is not valid, according to new research from the University of Central Florida in Orlando. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a global group of astronomy experts, established a definition of a planet that required it to "clear" its orbit, or in other words, be the largest gravitational force in its orbit. […]
Metzger, who is lead author on the study, reviewed scientific literature from the past 200 years and found only one publication -- from 1802 -- that used the clearing-orbit requirement to classify planets, and it was based on since-disproven reasoning.
"It's a sloppy definition," Metzger said of the IAU's definition. "They didn't say what they meant by clearing their orbit. If you take that literally, then there are no planets, because no planet clears its orbit." […]
Metzger said that the definition of a planet should be based on its intrinsic properties, rather than ones that can change, such as the dynamics of a planet's orbit. "Dynamics are not constant, they are constantly changing," Metzger said. "So, they are not the fundamental description of a body, they are just the occupation of a body at a current era."
Instead, Metzger recommends classifying a planet based on if it is large enough that its gravity allows it to become spherical in shape. "And that's not just an arbitrary definition, Metzger said. "It turns out this is an important milestone in the evolution of a planetary body, because apparently when it happens, it initiates active geology in the body."
Source: University of Central Florida. "Pluto should be reclassified as a planet, experts say." ScienceDaily, 7 September 2018. Available at: <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180907110422.htm>.
In the title of the text, the modal verb SHOULD conveys the idea of:
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