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Questão 34 390663EEAR 2019/1
Read the text to answer question.
Air Traffic Controllers
Air traffic controllers coordinate the movement of air
traffic, to ensure that aircraft stay safe distances apart.
Air traffic controllers typically do the following:
 - Issue landing and takeoff instructions to pilots;
- Monitor and direct the movement of aircraft on the
ground and in the air, using radar, computers, or visual
- Control all ground traffic at airports, including baggage
 vehicles and airport workers;
- Manage communications by transferring control of
departing flights to traffic control centers and accepting
control of arriving flights;
- Provide information to pilots, such as weather updates,
 runway closures, and other critical information; and
- Alert airport response staff, in the event of an aircraft
Air traffic controllers' primary concern is safety, but they
also must direct aircraft efficiently to minimize delays. They
 manage the flow of aircraft into and out of the airport
airspace, guide pilots during takeoff and landing, and monitor
aircraft, as they travel through the skies.
Controllers usually manage multiple aircraft at the same
time and must make quick decisions to ensure the safety of
 the aircraft. For example, a controller might direct one
aircraft on its landing approach, while providing another
aircraft with weather information.
Adapted from: ttps://collegegrad.com/careers/air-traffic-controllers
The words underlined in the text (lines 19 and 25) express, respectively
Questão 30 399036EEAR 2018/1
The modal verbs underlined in each sentence express:
1 – She might be at the party.
2 – Can you drive a dump truck?
3 – He mustn’t sleep during the class.
4 – You ought to learn Aviation English.
Questão 72 84297UFRGS 1° Dia FIS - LIT- ENG 2011
 New Dehli’s Paharganj rail station is
humming with sound and crawling with
people. The gray platforms are bathed in
white light. The train engines belch smoke
 and whistle like impatient bulls.
If you were to search for me in the
crowded maze, where would you look? You
would probably try to find me among the
dozens of street children who are stretched
 out on the smooth concrete floor in various
stages of rest and slumber. You might even
imagine me as an adolescent vendor,
peddling plastic bottles containing tap water
from the station’s toilet as pure Himalayan
 mineral water. You could visualize me as one
of the sweepers in dirty shirts and torn pants
shuffling ........ the platform, with a long
swishing broom transferring dirt from the
pavement ........ the track. Or you could look
 for me among the regiments of red-
uniformed porters bustling about with heavy
loads on their heads.
Well, think again, because I am neither a
vendor, nor porter, nor sweeper. Today I am
 a genuine passenger, travelling to Mumbai, in
the sleeper class no less, and with a proper
reservation. I am wearing a starched white
bush shirt made 100% cotton and Levi’s
jeans-yes, Levi’s jeans, bought from the
 Tibetan Market. I am walking purposefully
........ platform number five to board the
Paschim Express for Mumbai. There is a
porter trudging along by my side carrying a
light-brown suitcase on his head. The porter
 has been hired by me, and the suitcase on his
head belongs to me. The suitcase does not
contain any money. I have heard too many
stories about robbers on trains that drug you
at night and make off with your belongings to
 take the chance of keeping the most precious
cargo of my life-my salary from the Taylors-in
my suitcase. It is inside my underwear. I take
a quick look ........ the loose notes in my front
pocket. I reckon I will have just enough to
 take an auto-rickshaw from Bandra Terminus
to Salim’s room in the Ghatkopar slum. Won’t
Salim be surprised to see me arrive in a
three-wheeler instead of on the local train?
And when he sees the game I bought for
 him, I hope he doesn’t faint from happiness.
Adapted from: SWARUP, Vikas. Slumdog Millionaire. 2005. p. 148-149.
The modal verbs might (l. 11) and could (l. 15) are being used to express
Questão 17 2685708FCM PB 2019/2
TEXTO - How might obesity affect the brain?
The link between obesity and the brain is a fascinating topic that scientists have only recently begun to explore. New research adds important pieces to the puzzle. From the size and functionality of the brain to specific neuronal circuits, recent studies have brought to light important aspects of the connection between obesity and the brain. For instance, researchers published a study earlier this year that found a link between obesity around the stomach area and smaller brain size — specifically, lower gray matter volume.
The findings of another recent study showed that the brain's prefrontal cortex — an area that is important for complex thinking, planning, and self-control — is less active in people who tend to overeat, which may lead to obesity and weight gain.
Finally, research that appeared only last month identified an array of neurons that can curb overeating when they become active.
A new study now adds to this mounting body of evidence, shedding further light on the connection between obesity on the one hand and differences in brain structure and form on the other.
Dr. Ilona A. Dekkers, from the Leiden University Medical Center in the Netherlands, led a team of researchers who used cutting-edge MRI scanning technology to understand the link between obesity and brain structure.Dr. Dekkers and team reported smaller gray matter volumes in people with obesity, thus solidifying previous research findings. They also found connections with the brain's form and structure, called its morphology. The researchers published their findings in the journal Radiology
(Adapted from: www.medicalnewstoday.com)
The title “How might obesity affect the brain” addresses an idea of:
Questão 44 301019UNICID 2018
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
Tiny viruses live in your body: what to know about viromes and what scientists are doing to protect you
Wildlife biologists have enlisted the help of mice and other creatures as they try to better understand how viruses infect humans and how to protect them. “Most of the emerging infectious diseases that arise come from wildlife reservoir hosts,” researcher Kurt Vandegrift said in a statement from Pennsylvania State University. The university added, “One key to fighting emerging diseases is finding out before they get into humans which pathogens we’re most likely to encounter — the ones that are carried by the wild creatures we’re most likely to touch, share space with, or be bitten by.” In the U.S., that includes mice and deer ticks, for example.
While studying wildlife, the scientists may find viruses that could one day evolve to infect humans. Discovering them ahead of time gives experts a leg up on observing how the viruses work, creating vaccines or taking other measures. Studying animals has another benefit: learning more about their viromes — the collections of viruses in and on them — could lead to more information about the human virome.
Human beings are full of viruses, Penn State says. “Some of your viruses are just visiting and will be gone in a week. Most are permanent tenants. A few may even find their way into your DNA.” That’s not necessarily a bad thing, as the university notes that we owe our placenta and thus our reproductive process to virus genes and evolution. We can also be invaded by a virus but never see an infection, or become barely sick at all while others are debilitated.
“We are rarely, if ever, infected by just one germ at a time,” according to Penn State, “and since pathogens change your immune system, how sick you get from a new pathogen doesn’t depend only on the ones you’re infected with now; it’s a reflection of all the infectious diseases you’ve ever had, and even in what order you had them.” The ongoing research would not be the first time animals have taught scientists a thing or two about viruses. Smallpox is now eradicated but was once a highly contagious and often deadly virus in humans.
(Elana Glowatz. www.medicaldaily.com, 10.02.2017. Adaptado.)
No trecho do segundo parágrafo “viruses that could one day evolve to infect humans”, o termo em destaque pode ser substituído, sem alteração de sentido, por
Questão 25 139315UNESP 2017/1
Question: Is there anything I can do to train my body to need less sleep?
Many people think they can teach themselves to need less sleep, but they’re wrong, said Dr. Sigrid Veasey, a professor at the Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine. We might feel that we’re getting by fine on less sleep, but we’re deluding ourselves, Dr. Veasey said, largely because lack of sleep skews our self-awareness. “The more you deprive yourself of sleep over long periods of time, the less accurate you are of judging your own sleep perception,” she said.
Multiple studies have shown that people don’t functionally adapt to less sleep than their bodies need. There is a range of normal sleep times, with most healthy adults naturally needing seven to nine hours of sleep per night, according to the National Sleep Foundation. Those over 65 need about seven to eight hours, on average, while teenagers need eight to 10 hours, and school-age children nine to 11 hours. People’s performance continues to be poor while they are sleep deprived, Dr. Veasey said.
Health issues like pain, sleep apnea or autoimmune disease can increase people’s need for sleep, said Andrea Meredith, a neuroscientist at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. A misalignment of the clock that governs our sleep-wake cycle can also drive up the need for sleep, Dr. Meredith said. The brain’s clock can get misaligned by being stimulated at the wrong time of day, she said, such as from caffeine in the afternoon or evening, digital screen use too close to bedtime, or even exercise at a time of day when the body wants to be winding down.
No trecho do primeiro parágrafo “We might feel that we’re getting by fine on less sleep”, o termo em destaque pode ser substituído, sem alteração de sentido, por
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