Questão 20 1518785CESMAC Medicina 1° Dia 2020/1
Read the text below and answer the following question based on it.
Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial.
In a prospective, randomised, controlled trial to determine whether comprehensive lifestyle changes affect coronary atherosclerosis after 1 year, 28 patients were assigned to an experimental group (low-fat vegetarian diet, stopping smoking, stress management training, and moderate exercise) and 20 to a usual-care control group. 195 coronary artery lesions were analysed by quantitative coronary angiography. The average percentage diameter stenosis regressed from 40.0 (SD 16.9)% to 37.8 (16.5)% in the experimental group yet progressed from 42.7 (15.5)% to 46.1 (18.5)% in the control group. When only lesions greater than 50% stenosed were analysed, the average percentage diameter stenosis regressed from 61.1 (8.8)% to 55.8 (11.0)% in the experimental group and progressed from 61.7 (9.5)% to 64.4 (16.3)% in the control group. Overall, 82% of experimental-group patients had an average change towards regression. Comprehensive lifestyle changes may be able to bring about regression of even severe coronary atherosclerosis after only 1 year, without use of lipidlowering drugs.
Adaptado de: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1973470 Acessado em 27 de outubro de 2017.
In “Comprehensive lifestyle changes may be able to bring about regression…” may expresses:
Questão 26 2739105FATEC 2019/2
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
The Most Important Skill For 21st–Century Success
By Kevin H. Johnson
The world of work is changing so rapidly, as emerging technologies like artificial intelligence, machine learning, and automation change job requirements. As technologies continue to evolve and business conditions shift, employees must stay in learning mode so their skills don’t lose currency.
It’s one thing to keep up with skills as they’re changing in the here and now. It’s a whole different challenge to prepare yourself for tools and technologies that may exist only in the minds of engineers, if at all.
There’s so much uncertainty and ambiguity around the future of work, it doesn’t matter your industry or job function. That’s why, when anyone asks what the next “hot” skill will be, I say it’s the same skill that will serve people today, tomorrow, and far into the future — the ability to learn.
When people embrace lifelong learning, assimilating new skills isn’t a source of fear and stress — it’s just another part of their career journey. Separating process from outcome will make you a better learner too, as you get less fixated on immediate mastery of a skill and more appreciative of how moving outside your comfort zone helps you grow as a person.
A learning mindset also makes it less likely you’ll be thrown off or immobilized when a project changes scope or a job function undergoes transformation. While others scramble to figure out where to go from here, lifelong learners maintain momentum and productivity.
https://tinyurl.com/ya42xtrr Acesso em: 15.03.2019. Adaptado. Original colorido.
O verbo may, na oração do segundo parágrafo “It’s a whole different challenge to prepare yourself for tools and technologies that may exist only in the minds of engineers, if at all”, indica
Questão 27 396827EEAR 2018/2
Read the text and answer question.
 It’s never too late to make changes to prevent diseases
that may end your flying career. And becoming healthier
doesn’t mean you have to make major changes. Here are
some tips on what you can do today to keep yourself in the
 air for years to come.
- take the stairs instead of riding the elevator;
- limit red meat;
- consume more vegetables;
- wear UV-blocking sunglasses;
 - walk more;
- try a yoga class;
- don’t smoke;
- drink a lot of water;
- find an activity that you love after retirement.
Fonte:http://goo.gl/W3uCrU Acess 30/05/2017
In the sentence “It’s never too late to make changes to prevent diseases that may end your flying career”, the modal verb “may” expresses __________.
Questão 39 134363Unit-SE Medicina - Caderno 1 2016
No need to sugarcoat it: According to new
guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO),
only 5% of a person’s total daily calories should come
from added sugar (about 26 g per day for a 2,000-calorie
diet). Their experts made the recommendation after
studying the increasing rates of obesity, tooth decay and
heart disease, all of which are linked to sugar
But is it too extreme? In the U.S., the Centers for
Disease Control estimates that a full 13% of U.S. adults’
total caloric intake came from sugar in 2010. The main
culprit isn’t even sweets — it’s processed foods. A
tablespoon of ketchup has 4 g of sugar; a frozen pizza
may contain as much as 26 g. Expecting people to
sacrifice all that “is unrealistic,” says Keri Gans, a
registered dietitian and the author of The Small Change
Diet. “We should focus on what we should be eating and
not what we shouldn’t be.”
To that end, WHO’s original 10% restriction (about
52 g of added sugar per day for a 2,000-calorie diet) may
be “more realistic” in the U.S., according to Francesco
Branca, WHO’s director for nutrition. That would be
slightly more than the amount recommended in the
controversial guidelines the American Heart Association
released in 2009, which suggested from 30 g to 45 g per
In the long run, the onus to reduce sugar
consumption may fall on the food industry. In February,
for example, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
announced it will revamp nutrition labels to highlight
added sugars (as opposed to sugar that occurs naturally,
as in fruit), making it easier for people to gauge a product’s
healthfulness. And following the attempted “soda ban” in
New York City — which aimed to outlaw sugary beverages
in sizes over 16 oz. (473 ml) — San Francisco and
Berkeley, Calif., are trying to pass a sugary-beverage
tax in an effort to curb the 180,000 deaths worldwide that
are linked to sweetened drinks.
It may not be possible to shift our diets right away,
says Dr. Donald Hensrud, a preventive medicine and
nutrition expert with the Mayo Clinic. But by taking
advantage of food-health initiatives — like the new
labels — and eating more fresh foods, “we can change
our taste preferences” for the better. This is a key factor
45 in nutrition weight loss children.
SIFFERLIN, Alexandra. Sweet Sacrifice. Time. Mar 24, 2014.
Considering language use in the text, it’s correct to say:
Questão 47 150385UNICID 2016
Can there be a world without antibiotics?
Medical experts around the globe are worried that more and more viruses and bacteria are becoming resistant to today’s medicine. They are afraid that in a few generations antibiotics may become useless. Scientists have already discovered bacteria that do not react if treated with antibiotics. As a result medical treatment will become more expensive as new drugs have to be developed.
Doctors and other health experts criticize the fact that antibiotics are being used in a wrong way. They are often prescribed in cases in which they do not work. In some areas, especially Third World countries and densely populated areas in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh doctors have already run out of antibiotics. Prescribing wrong antibiotics or taking them for too short a time will not kill off bacteria. Some doctors prescribe antibiotics for the common flu, making it ineffective for later illnesses. The World Health Organization claims that many infectious diseases are becoming untreatable and cannot be controlled. Many patients who become resistant to drugs even die.
Another problem is that farmers in the United States and Europe are adding antibiotics to feed cattle and other animals, in order to make them grow faster and produce more meat. Also, through increased global travel, bacteria are spreading faster than ever before.
Since Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in the early 20th century antibiotics have saved hundreds of millions of lives. Many operations cannot be carried out if we are unable to treat infections. The transplantation of organs can become very risky if patients do not get medication to strengthen their immune system. Routine operations like removing an appendix or replacing a bad hip could become fatal. Childbirth may once again threaten a woman’s life and raise child mortality. Even illnesses like pneumonia, which today can be treated effectively with antibiotics, might once again turn into a mass killer. Antibiotics have made infections like tuberculosis treatable. Cancer treatment would be unthinkable without the proper treatment of the immune system to accompany it.
Health experts call for increased action to fight off diseases. Most common is the call to improve hospital hygiene, where infectious diseases start out. Especially in Third World countries, bacteria spread through dirty water and the sewage system. Even making people aware of washing their hands more often can stop the spread of infectious diseases.
No quarto parágrafo, as palavras “may”, “can” e “might” são usadas em diferentes frases e todas denotam a ideia de
Questão 15 157884CESGRANRIO 2016
What Your Facebook Use Reveals About Your Personality: Likes, shares, and comments reveal a lot about who you are.
Every day when Facebook asks, “What’s on your
mind?” around 400 million people respond with a status
message. While some people take the opportunity
to share about their latest meal, other people post
photos or inspirational messages. Over the past few
years, researchers have discovered the way people
choose to present themselves on Facebook speaks
volumes about their personality and self-esteem.
Examining your behavior on social media could
give you insight into your own personality, as well
as how others perceive you. You may think you’re
presenting yourself in a certain light only to discover
other people view your behavior completely different.
Here are seven things our Facebook interactions
reveal about people:
1. People with a lot of Facebook friends tend
to have low self-esteem. A 2012 study published
in Computers in Human Behavior found that people
with low self-esteem who worried about their public
perception had the most Facebook friends. The
researchers concluded that self-conscious people
compensate for low self-esteem by trying to appear
popular on Facebook.
2. Extroverts update their status more often
than introverts. Just like in real life, extroverts
socialize more on social media, according to a 2014
study titled “Personality Traits and Self-Presentation
at Facebook”. The study found that extroverts use
the like button more often, upload more pictures, and
update their status more frequently than introverts.
3. Conscientious people organize their photos
carefully. Conscientious people are self-disciplined
hard-workers who spend the least amount of time on
Facebook. Computers in Human Behavior reports
that when conscientious people do use Facebook,
they do so in a very organized manner. For example,
they may create neat folders to help share their photos
with friends and family in a methodical and convenient
4. Open people fill out their personal profiles
most thoroughly. A 2010 study discovered that
open people – described as artistic, imaginative, and
creative – use the most features on Facebook and
are most likely to complete the personal information
sections. They also tend to post more “wall messages”
when communicating with specific friends.
5. Narcissists make deeper self-disclosures
that contain self-promotional content. Narcissists
– people with an inflated self-concept and a strong
sense of uniqueness and superiority – seek attention
and affirmation on Facebook. A 2014 study published
in Computers in Human Behavior found that
narcissists posted more frequently about themselves
in an attempt to attract likes and comments that fuel
their beliefs about self-importance. Other studies
have found that people love selfies and they share
the ones where they think they look most attractive in
hopes of gaining admiration.
6. Neurotic people post mostly photos. A 2014
study found that highly neurotic people – those most
prone to stress and anxiety – seek acceptance by
publishing photos. Since neurotic people struggle with
communication and social skills, researchers believe
they use photos on Facebook as a means to express
themselves. Also, photos are less controversial than
comments – which could lead to a lot of anxiety as
they wait for other people’s responses.
Neurotic people tend to have the most photos
per album. Researchers believe this stems from their
desire to present themselves positively. They may use
photos to try and appear happier and to show they are
able to keep up with their friends.
7. Agreeable people are tagged in other
people’s photos most often. A 2012 study titled
“Personality and Patters of Facebook Usage” found
that the higher a person ranks in personality scales
for agreeableness, the more likely that person will be
tagged in Facebook photos posted by other people.
Since agreeable people tend to behave warm and
friendly and less competitive, it’s not surprising that
their friends enjoy taking lighthearted pictures with
them and sharing them on Facebook.
Although we may think we’re masking our
insecurities or portraying ourselves in the most
favorable light, our behavior on social media reveals
more than we might think. It’s not just what we post
on Facebook that reveals information about our
personalities - it’s also what we don’t post that can
be quite telling. It’s likely that our personality profiles
will continue to play a major role in how advertisers
market to us and how companies will choose to hire
people in the future.
Available at: . Retrieved on: Apr. 17th, 2015. Adapted.
In the fragment of the text “they may create neat folders to help share their photos with friends and family” (lines 37-38), the modal verb may implies an idea of