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Questão 31 1709495EN 1° Dia 2019
Which option completes the text below correctly”?
Tips for a Healthy Diet
You eat vegetables every day. Vegetables contain essential vitamins and substances that are very important for your organism.
You only eat what you like to eat because to stay healthy you also need to eat what your organism needs you to eat.
(Adapted from hitps://nexter.org/top-5-tips-for-a-healthy-diet)
Questão 19 608931UFT Tarde 2019
Read the following text in order to answer QUESTION
Pluto should be reclassified as a planet, experts say
The reason Pluto lost its planet status is not valid, according to new research from the University of Central Florida in Orlando. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a global group of astronomy experts, established a definition of a planet that required it to "clear" its orbit, or in other words, be the largest gravitational force in its orbit. […]
Metzger, who is lead author on the study, reviewed scientific literature from the past 200 years and found only one publication -- from 1802 -- that used the clearing-orbit requirement to classify planets, and it was based on since-disproven reasoning.
"It's a sloppy definition," Metzger said of the IAU's definition. "They didn't say what they meant by clearing their orbit. If you take that literally, then there are no planets, because no planet clears its orbit." […]
Metzger said that the definition of a planet should be based on its intrinsic properties, rather than ones that can change, such as the dynamics of a planet's orbit. "Dynamics are not constant, they are constantly changing," Metzger said. "So, they are not the fundamental description of a body, they are just the occupation of a body at a current era."
Instead, Metzger recommends classifying a planet based on if it is large enough that its gravity allows it to become spherical in shape. "And that's not just an arbitrary definition, Metzger said. "It turns out this is an important milestone in the evolution of a planetary body, because apparently when it happens, it initiates active geology in the body."
Source: University of Central Florida. "Pluto should be reclassified as a planet, experts say." ScienceDaily, 7 September 2018. Available at: <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/09/180907110422.htm>.
In the title of the text, the modal verb SHOULD conveys the idea of:
Questão 34 141543UPE 3º Fase / 1º Dia SSA 2017
There are more than five million cubic miles of ice on Earth, and no one really knows how long it would take to melt it all. Probably more than 5,000 years, some scientists say. But if we burn all the coal, oil, and gas, adding some five trillion more tons of carbon to the atmosphere, we’ll very likely create an ice-free planet. It ___________ be a hot planet, with an average temperature of perhaps 80 degrees Fahrenheit instead of the current 58. (…)
(If All the Ice Melted. National Geographic, September, 2013. Adaptado.)
A sequência CORRETA que completa as lacunas dos textos 6, 7 e 8 está indicada na alternativa
Questão 14 294567FMP 2018
Cross-cultural Issues and Diverse Belief,
Douglas S. Diekema MD, MPH
Patients may bring cultural, religious and
ideological beliefs with them as they enter into a
relationship with the physician. Occasionally, these
beliefs may challenge or conflict with what the physician
 believes to be good medical care. Understanding
and respecting the beliefs of the patient represents
an important part of establishing and maintaining a
therapeutic relationship. While the principle of respect
for autonomy requires that a physician respect the
 medical decisions of a competent adult patient, in
cases of surrogate decision-making, the physician
has an independent duty to guard the interests of the
Why is it important to respect what appears to me
 to be idiosyncratic beliefs?
Respecting the beliefs and values of your patient
is an important part of establishing an effective
therapeutic relationship. Failure to take those beliefs
seriously can undermine the patient’s ability to trust
 you as her physician. It may also encourage persons
with non-mainstream cultural or religious beliefs to
avoid seeking medical care when they need it.
What are some ways to discover well known sets
 There are many groups that share common sets
of beliefs. These belief systems may be based on
shared religions, ethnicity, or ideology. Knowledge
of these beliefs and the reasonable range of
interpretation of doctrine should be very helpful in
 deciding if unusual beliefs should be respected. Good
resources for guidance in this area include patients
and family members themselves, staff members with
personal knowledge or experience, hospital chaplains,
social workers, and interpreters. Unusual beliefs that
 fall outside known belief systems should prompt more
in-depth discussions to insure they are reasonable.
It is important to explore each individual’s beliefs,
as shared membership in a particular religious or
cultural group does not necessarily entail identical
 belief systems.
What is my responsibility when a patient
endangers her health by refusing a treatment?
Adults have a moral and legal right to make
decisions about their own health care, including the
 right to refuse treatments that may be life-saving.
The physician has a responsibility to make sure that
the patient understands the possible and probable
outcomes of refusing the proposed treatment. The
physician should attempt to understand the basis for
 the patient’s refusal and address those concerns and
any misperceptions the patient may have. In some
cases, enlisting the aid of a leader in the patient’s
cultural or religious community may be helpful.
Can parents refuse to provide their children with
 necessary medical treatment on the basis of their
Parents have legal and moral authority to make
health care decisions for their children, as long
as those decisions do not pose a significant risk of
 serious harm to the child’s health. Parents should not
be permitted to deny their children medical care when
that medical care is likely to prevent substantial harm
or suffering. If necessary, the physician may need
to pursue a court order or seek the involvement of
 child protective services in order to provide treatment
against the wishes of the parents. Nevertheless, the
physician must always take care to show respect
for the family’s beliefs and a willingness to discuss
reasonable alternatives with the family.
 What kinds of treatment can parents choose not
to provide to their children?
Parents have the right to refuse medical
treatments when doing so does not place the child
at significant risk of substantial harm or suffering.
 For example, parents have the right to refuse routine
immunizations for their children on religious or cultural
Can a patient demand that I provide them with a
form of treatment that I am uncomfortable providing?
 A physician is not morally obligated to provide
treatment modalities that they do not believe offer a
benefit to the patient or which may harm the patient.
Physicians should also not offer treatments that
they do not feel competent to provide or prescribe.
 However, it is important to take the patient’s request
seriously, consider accommodating requests that
will not harm the patient or others, and attempt to
formulate a plan that would be acceptable to both the
physician and patient.
Available at: . Retrieved on: July 3rd, 2017. Adapted.
In the fragment of the text “Knowledge of these beliefs and the reasonable range of interpretation of doctrine should be very helpful” (lines 27-29), the modal should conveys an idea of
Questão 18 776450USS 2018/2
YELLOW FEVER VACCINE
The 17D vaccine, which is based on a live, attenuated viral strain, is the only commercially available
yellow fever vaccine. It is given as a single subcutaneous (or intramuscular) injection. Yellow fever
vaccine is highly effective (approaching 100%). All individuals aged 9 months or older and living in
countries or areas at risk should receive yellow fever vaccine.
 With the exception of very rare cases of vaccine-associated neurotropic and viscerotropic disease
(see below), the 17D vaccine is generally considered to be safe. Contraindications include severe
hypersensitivity to egg antigens and severe immunodeficiency. […] Noting that yellow fever vaccine is
a live vaccine, a risk-benefit assessment should be undertaken for all pregnant and lactating women. In
areas where YF1 is endemic, or during outbreaks, the benefits of YF vaccination are likely to far outweigh
 the risk of potential transmission of vaccine virus to the fetus or infant. Pregnant women and nursing
mothers should be counselled on the potential benefits and risks of vaccination so that they may
make an informed decision about vaccination. Lactating women should be advised that the benefits
of breastfeeding far outweigh alternatives. Vaccination is recommended, if indicated, for pregnant or
breastfeeding women travelling to endemic areas when such travel cannot be avoided or postponed.
 The YF vaccine is contraindicated in infants under 6 months of age and is not recommended for those
aged 6–8 months, except during epidemics when the risk of YF transmission may be very high.
Viscerotropic disease: Vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease is a recently described adverse event
that on very rare occasions has occurred after the first immunization with the yellow fever 17D vaccine.
Onset is within 10 days of vaccination and the pathological process is characterized by severe multi-
 organ failure and an overall case–fatality rate in excess of 60%. Known risk factors include a history of
thymus disease (e.g. thymoma or thymectomy) and age ≥60 years. [...]
Neurotropic disease: Increased incidence of vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (e.g.
meningoencephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and Guillain–Barré syndrome) has been
reported in infants under 6 months of age and in vaccine recipients aged 60 years and older. [...]
 Yellow fever vaccination is required for travellers to certain countries and is recommended for all
travellers to countries or areas with risk of yellow fever transmission […] While yellow fever vaccination
should be encouraged as a key prevention strategy, it is important to screen travel itineraries and
carefully evaluate the potential risk of systemic illness after yellow fever vaccination. Great care should
be exercised not to prescribe yellow fever vaccination to individuals who are not at risk of exposure to
 infection, based on an accurate assessment of the travel itinerary. Although vaccination is generally not
recommended for travellers going to areas where the risk of exposure is low, any risk (e.g. as a result of
prolonged travel or heavy exposure to mosquito bites) should be weighed against individual risk factors
for vaccineassociated adverse events (e.g. altered immune status).
Adaptado de who.int/ith/vaccines/yf/en/, 11/03/2018.
1 YF - yellow fever
Great care should be exercised not to prescribe… (l. 28-29)
The fragment below that contains an expression with the same semantic meaning of should in the sentence above is the following:
Questão 18 403450Mackenzie 2017/2
Which of the alternatives below are acceptable in English?
I. She would like me to speak to her mother.
II. We want he goes to England with us.
III. They asked that she study more.
IV. He would rather to traveling in winter.
V. I think people should avoid speaking too loud in public.
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