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Questão 41 1507651EPCAR 2020
Directions: Read the text below and answer question according to the text.
The search for life beyond Earth
We have always been fascinated by the thought of
alien life elsewhere in the universe. The idea has
provided the basis for a huge wealth of science fiction
stories that have been limited only by our imaginations.
 But can other creatures exist in the vast reaches of
space or on other planets or moons? And are there
other intelligent forms of life out there—or are we more
likely to find something much simpler?
Where are all the aliens?
 Our Sun is just one star among billions in our
galaxy. In the last few years, scientists have detected
thousands of planets around other stars and it seems
that most stars have planetary systems. It’s therefore
likely that there will be large numbers of habitable
 planets in the Milky Way galaxy and beyond that are
capable of supporting intelligent life. Some of these
intelligent civilisations, if they’re out there, may have
even developed interstellar travel.
Are there other intelligent forms of life out there—or
 are we more likely to find something much simpler?
But Earth hasn’t been visited by any intelligent
aliens (yet?). This apparent high probability of life,
combined with a lack of evidence for its existence, is
called the Fermi Paradox, named for the physicist
 Enrico Fermi who first outlined1 the argument back in
1950. This begs the question: where is everybody?
Back in 1961, astronomer Francis Drake tried to
rationalise this question by developing an equation that
takes into account2 all the factors relevant to finding
 alien civilisations and gives an estimate of the number
of civilisations out there in the galaxy that should be
able to communicate with us. It considers factors such
as the rate3 of new star formation, how many planets
around those new and existing stars might be able to
 support life, the number of planets supporting intelligent
life, how many of those civilisations might have
technology we can detect, whether they’re likely to
communicate with us here on Earth, and so on.
The search for extraterrestrial intelligence
 Scientists and radio astronomers have started the
search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) in a
systematic manner. Several international organisations,
including the SETI Institute and the SETI League, are
using radio telescopes to detect signals that might have
 been produced by intelligent life.
In 1995, the SETI Institute started Project Phoenix,
which used three of the most powerful radio telescopes
in the world: the Green Bank radio telescope in West
Virginia, USA; the Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico;
 and the Parkes radio telescope in NSW, Australia.
During its initial phase, Project Phoenix used the
Parkes telescope to search for signals coming from 202
Sun-like stars as distant as 155 light years away. By the
end of its operations, Project Phoenix had scanned a
 total of 800 ‘nearby’4 (up to 240 light years away) stars
for signs of life. The project detected some cosmic
noises, but none of that could be attributed to aliens.
These days, anyone can become involved in the
search for extraterrestrial intelligence through their
 personal computer.
While there’s currently excitement about sending
human crews to Mars, missions beyond the Red Planet
are at this stage pretty much not feasible5 the distances
and travel times involved are simply too great.
 Basically, all exploration for life beyond Earth will need
to be done using robotic space probes6 and landing
rovers. These instruments can provide a huge wealth of
information and are capable of exploring as far away as
Pluto, perhaps even beyond our solar system. But as
 for life beyond the solar system, the nearest stars are
several light years away, and even communications by
electromagnetic waves (which all travel at the speed of
light) are essentially going to be a one-way message.
While we probably won’t find intelligent life too close
 to home, there’s a chance we may still find much
simpler life forms. Do we have neighbours beyond
Earth? Time will tell—and the search continues.
(Adapted from https://www.science.org.au/curious/space-time/search-lifebeyond-earth – Access on 16/02/19)
1. to outline – describe or give the main fact about something
2. to take into account – consider something
3. rate – expansion
4. nearby – short distance away
5. feasible – appropriate; suitable
6. space probe – spy satellite
Considering the plural form of the nouns, mark the correct alternative.
Questão 32 4038153UNICID 2020
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
Because it is locked away inside the skull, the brain is hard to study. Looking at it requires finicky machines which use magnetism or electricity or both to bypass the bone. There is just one tendril of brain tissue that can be seen from outside the body without any mucking about of this sort. That is the retina. Look into someone’s eyes and you are, in some small way, looking at their brain.
This being so, a group of researchers decided to study the structure of the eye for signs of cognitive decline. Changes in the brain, they reasoned, might lead to changes in the nervous tissue connected to it. They focused on a part of the eye called the retinal nerve-fibre layer (RNFL). This is the lowest layer of the retina and serves to link the light-sensitive tissue above to the synapses which lead to the brain. The team’s results show that people with a thin RNFL are more likely to fail cognitive tests than those with a thick one. They are also more likely to suffer cognitive decline as they age.
(www.economist.com, 30.06.2018. Adaptado.)
No trecho do primeiro parágrafo “Looking at it requires finicky machines”, a palavra sublinhada refere-se a
Questão 8 5944807PUC-Rio 2020
How robot carers could be the future for lonely elderly people
Alessandro Di Nuovo
December 6, 2018
The film Robot and Frank imagined a near-future
where robots could do almost everything humans
could. The elderly title character was given a “robot
butler” to help him continue living on his own. The
robot was capable of everything from cooking and
 cleaning to socializing and, it turned out, burglary. This
kind of science fiction may turn out to be remarkably
prescient. As growing numbers of elderly people
require care, researchers believe that robots could be
 one way to address the overwhelming demand. But
even though robots might be able to provide care and,
in some cases, social interaction, many wonder if they
really are the right solution to this uniquely human
 Loneliness and social isolation are already
problems for many seniors and are even linked to
cognitive decline and a higher death rate. With the
population of seniors expected to rise, many worry
that experiences of loneliness will increase, especially
 if access to care is even more limited.
But despite concerns, early studies already show
that social robots – autonomous robots trained to
interact and communicate with humans – really could
address issues of care and social interaction. The
 majority of robotics researchers are largely in favour
of introducing robotic technology on a wider scale
and believe it could reduce loneliness and increase
independence in elderly patients. The Japanese
government even supports introducing robots in
 care homes to solve the country’s ageing population
problem. However, many strongly recommend
carefully balancing the care benefits against the
A class of social robots – mobile robotic
 telepresence systems (MRTs) – have already been
shown to generate positive social interactions with
elderly patients. MRTs are essentially video screens
on wheels raised to head height that can be controlled
remotely using a simple smartphone app. They allow
 relatives and social workers to “visit” elderly people
more often, even if they live in rural or distant places.
Elderly patients don’t need to operate the device,
leaving them free to interact with their social worker
or family. Communication still happens through a
 computer screen, but the robot’s physical presence
mimics face-to-face interaction for elderly people.
Research has shown that people reacted more
positively when talking with someone through an MRT
than through a regular video call or computer avatar –
 especially lonely people. However, MRTs still require
a human operator, which limits the amount of social
interaction seniors can have daily.
To tackle this, developers worldwide have
started creating robot companions programmed with
 advanced artificial intelligence (AI), which can interact
with people on their own. Some examples include
pet-like companion robots, including Aibo and Paro,
which are made by Japanese developers, and MiRo,
which is manufactured in the UK. Other humanoid
 robots, such as the Care-O-bot and Pepper, are able
to provide more complex and comprehensive care.
Though “pet” robots offer limited interaction, they
have proved as effective – or even more so – than
real pets in reducing loneliness for elderly people in
 care homes. Robotic dogs introduced in one UK care
home this year were reported to bring happiness and
comfort to residents.
On the other hand, humanoid robots are already
advanced enough to provide much-needed care to
 elderly people. These robots can pick things up and
move independently, and have a more natural, human
way of interacting, for example, using arm and hand
gestures. More advanced versions have additional
sensors and devices, including touchscreens. Many
 elderly people, finding the touchscreens hard to use,
preferred giving spoken commands to the robot and
reading its response off the screen. But for those with
age-related hearing loss or vision impairment, having
the option to use the touchscreen was indispensable.
 Humanoid robots are still being developed, so their
capabilities are still limited. Moreover, studies of
humanoid robots have mainly focused on evaluating
how well the technology functions without really
considering the social impact. There is also a general
 assumption that it will naturally reduce loneliness.
Though research into social robots is just
beginning, we do know they can provide some solutions
to the challenges mounted by ageing populations, and
could even help reduce social isolation and loneliness.
 At this point, humans are still better in providing care
and social contact to the elderly, but robots might
be able to fill any gaps, especially as technologies
continue to improve. However, before social robots
can be fully integrated into care homes, researchers
 and service providers must address public anxiety
and make it clear that robots are designed to assist
social workers, not replace them. As long as humans
remain in full control to prevent any danger, robots
might well be the future of care.
Available at:<https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgetsand-tech/features/robot-carer-elderly-people-lonelinessageing-population-care-homes-a8659801.html>. Retrieved on: July 2, 2019. Adapted.
The word assumption in “There is also a general assumption that it will naturally reduce loneliness.” (lines 84-85) can be replaced, without change in meaning, by
Questão 22 1592930Unit-AL Demais Cursos 2019/1
The latest innovation that’s changing the way
you break a sweat is likely to have even the most
internet-savvy millennials starry-eyed with workout
wonder.Today marks the release of the interactive
 gym, Mirror ($1,495, plus a $39 monthly subscription).
At first glance, the device looks like a sleek, no
frills reflective surface you might hang up to checkout
your leggings-sports bra combo before heading off to
spin class. Switch the device on however, and you’ll
 come face-to-face with a trainer who can lead you
through a full class of cardio, strength, yoga, Pilates,
barre, boxing, and stretch—all of which you can tailor
by time and skill-level to your personal fitness goals.
Visual feedback is at the center of the smart decor’s
 design. Not only can you see yourself and the trainer
as you perform each move in front of the device, but in
the live classes, the trainer can see you and offer you
feedback, like “Make sure you can see your toes in
 If you can’t catch one of the 50 or more real-time
sweat sessions offered per week, each category of
class is also available on-demand for midnight HIIT
(High Intensity Interval Training) sessions or spur of
the moment afternoon pick-me-ups.
Disponível em: https://www.wellandgood.com/good-sweat/mirror-athome-workout-equipment/. Acesso em: 05 mar. 2008. Adaptado.
Considering language use in the text, it’s correct to say:
Questão 31 1651276Unit-SE Medicina 1º Dia 2019/1
Lorcaserin, a weight loss drug, has been hailed
as a “holy grail” in the battle against obesity. It works by
suppressing the appetite and increasing satiety but,
unlike many weight loss drugs, scientists found
 lorcaserin did not raise the risk of cardiovascular
problems among at-risk individuals who took part in a
Tam Fry of the U.K. said: “I think there will be
several holy grails, but this is a holy grail and one which
 has been certainly at the back of the mind of a lot of
specialists for a long time.However, Fry cautioned: “But
all of the other things apply—lifestyle change has got
to be root and branch part of this.”
To test the safety of lorcaserin, the researchers
 recruited 12,000 overweight or obese patients. They
randomly assigned the participants a placebo or
lorcaserin. Over a three-year period, the state of their
health was documented.The study revealed that
patients who took lorcaserin lost 4.2 kilograms on
 average (9 pounds), while those on the placebo lost
1.4 kilograms (3 pounds).And participants who took
lorcaserin were at no greater risk of experiencing a
cardiovascular event, like a stroke, when compared with
those who were given the placebo.
 In the past, weight loss drugs have been
discontinued after being found to increase the risk of
heart attacks, strokes, pulmonary hypertension, and
valvular heart disease, the authors emphasized.
Gander, Kashmira. Disponível em: https://www.newsweek.com/ lorcaserin-holy-grail-weight-loss drug-...-1092239. Acesso em: 1 nov. 2018.
The only pair of opposites is in alternative
Questão 12 1855874UnirG 2019/1
Heatwave made more than twice as likely by climate change, scientists find
27 July, 2018
1 Scientists say climate change is clearly happening. For many years, scientists have said that global warming is increasing the number and the strength of heatwaves. They say that by the 2040s, we will have even worse heatwaves every other year.
2 “Unusually warm weather will become common,” said Friederike Otto, at the University of Oxford and part of the World Weather Attribution (WWA) group that did the work.
3 The new analysis in the summer of 2018 compares extreme weather records of the hottest three-day period in seven places in northern Europe, from Ireland to the Netherlands to Scandinavia with weather from the past and with computer models of how our climate would be without climate change. This way, researchers can find how much global warming is increasing the risk of dangerous weather.
4 “We found that in the far north, in the Arctic Circle, the 2018 heatwave is extraordinary – we have never seen this before in history,” said Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and also part of WWA.
5 Across northern Europe, the group found global warming more than doubled the risk of scorching temperatures. “It is amazing that we can now see the changes at a local level,” he said.
6 “Most heatwave studies have used large-scale averages – for example, looking at temperatures across the whole of Europe,” said Otto. “In this study, we have looked at individual locations, where people live, to show the heatwave people have actually been experiencing.”
7 In the past, similar analyses have shown very strong connections between climate change and extreme weather events. The scorching summer in New South Wales, Australia, in 2016–17; the “Lucifer” heatwave across Europe’s Mediterranean countries in summer 2017 and the large amount of rain in the US brought by Hurricane Harvey, also in 2017, were all events made highly more likely by global warming. This means it can be “linked directly to climate change”, said the scientists.
8 The fact that the heatwave happened in such a large area, across four continents, shows that global warming is responsible, said Professor Peter Stott, a weather scientist: “That pattern is something we wouldn’t see without climate change.”
9 During the 2018 heatwave across northern Europe, there were wildfires in the Arctic Circle and a long period of heat across the UK and the European continent. In the south, fires have devastated parts of Greece, with many people killed.
10 The first six months of the 2018 were the hottest recorded for any year without an El Niño event, a natural climate cycle that raises temperatures.
CARRINGTON, Damian. Heatwave made more than twice as likely by climate change, scientist find. The Guardian. 27 jul. 2018. In: http://www.onestopenglish.com/skills/news-lessons/monthly-topical- news lessons/. Accessed on September 24, 2018)
The word “analyses” is the plural of “analysis” (paragraph 3).
Select the option with words that have the same plural formation in English:
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