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Questão 19 1038390ACAFE Medicina 2019/1
COPENHAGEN — The Nordic countries regularly appear at the top of an annual list of the world’s happiest nations, but their reputation as “happiness superpowers” masks the difficulties of a significant part of the population, a new analysis shows.
Finland, Norway, Denmark and Iceland led the 2018 ranking of the World Happiness Report, and Sweden wasn’t far behind, placing ninth. But in the five Nordic countries, an average of 12.3 percent of the population is “struggling” or “suffering,” according to a report by the Nordic Council of Ministers and the Happiness Research Institute in Copenhagen.
The report, based on research conducted from 2012 to 2016, asked people to assess their satisfaction with life on a scale of zero to 10. Those who answered seven or higher were categorized as “thriving,” those who responded five or six were classified as “struggling,” and those who said four or lower were deemed to be “suffering.” Most respondents in the Nordic countries reported satisfaction of seven to nine.
The Nordic states have a sophisticated social net that means that young people face less pressure regarding education, health or jobs than do many of their peers elsewhere. The countries have some of the world’s highest taxes, but schools and hospitals are free, parental leave is generous, and unemployment benefits and care for the elderly help those no longer working. But with that security and help come expectations to do well, and pressure to be as happy as one’s peers.
The trends highlighted in the report appear to be backed up by various national studies conducted in the region. In Sweden, the number of people with depression increased 20 percent in 10 years, the national board on health and welfare said last year, a rise that was particularly pronounced among the young. In Denmark, people ages 16 to 24 are more lonely than are people in their grandparents’ generation, a national survey of 180,000 people conducted this year by the Danish Health Authority showed.
Mr. Birkjaer of the Happiness Research Institute noted that a performance culture and the growing use of social media contributed to depression, loneliness and stress.
“These problems are difficult to solve,” he said. “Let’s say social media are a major cause, then what do we do? Ban them? Something else would come in their place.” [...]
(Source: https://www.nytimes.com, retrieved on September 15, 2018)
What class of word does "rise" belong to in the sentence: " In Sweden, the number of people with depression increased 20 percent in 10 years, the national board on health and welfare said last year, a rise that was particularly pronounced among the young"(5th paragraph)?
Questão 48 398517EEAR 2018/2
Read the text and answer question.
Good day! My name is Sheila. I’m from Melbourne, Australia. My ___________ is from Montreal, Canada. We live in Sydney. A lot of ___________ living in Australia come from other ___________.
Choose the best alternative to complete the blanks in the text:
Questão 48 280332EPCAR 2017
Directions: Read the text below and answer question according to it.
Most Common Prejudices
What are some of the most common ways
people discriminate against each other? Some of the
areas where people show their intolerance are wellknown,
such as race. But others are less
 acknowledged1, even if more common:
Age: Ageism is more common than you think. Older
people are thought to be inflexible and stuck2 in the
past, while younger people are seen as inexperienced
and naive. One-fifth of working adults say they
 experience ageism in the workplace.
Class: Classism usually takes the form of
discrimination by wealthier people against those who
are less well off. However, classism goes both ways—
people of lower economic status can see the wealthy
 as elite snobs who, while monetarily secure, are
Color: Different from racism, colorism is discrimination
based only on the color of a person’s skin; how
relatively dark or light they are. Colorism takes place
 within and between races. It is common in multi-ethnic
and non-white societies and societies with historical
Ability: Usually called ableism, a less well-known form
of prejudice is discrimination against people with visible
 disabilities such as those in wheelchairs or with a
learning disability. The disabled face discrimination not
only from their peers4, but from institutions, schools,
employers, and landowners5 who are hesitant to
accommodate the disabled.
 Sex/Gender: Possibly the most universal and long
running prejudice is that based on a person’s gender or
sex. Historically, sexism has placed men in a more
advantageous position than women.
Weight/Size: In short, sizeism is discrimination based
 on a person’s body size or weight. Sizeism works with
social standards of beauty and usually takes the form
of discrimination against the overweight — anti-fat
Religion: Religious discrimination and persecution has
 been common throughout history. But prejudice based
on religious affiliation doesn’t end with organized
religion; atheists are prone6 to discrimination and being
Sexual Orientation: Most commonly, prejudice based
 on sexual orientation includes discrimination against
those of a non-heterosexual orientation. Discrimination
against the non-heterosexual takes many forms
depending on the society. In some societies prejudice
is open and tolerated, but in most Western societies,
 bias7 against the non-heterosexual is more discreet.
Country of Origin: Nativism is a common form of
discrimination against immigrants to a country. Unlike
many other forms of discrimination, nativism is many
times encouraged and enforced by some public
Which prejudice do you have? Which prejudice have
Adapted from https://aloftyexistence.wordpress.com
1 - acknowledged – reconhecidos (as)
2 - stuck – presos (as)
3 - bankrupt – falidos (as)
4 - peers - pares; colegas
5 - landowners – proprietários (as)
6 - prone – propensos (as)
7 - bias – julgamento ou opinião parcial
Mark the group of uncountable words extracted from the text above.
Questão 34 1381297CN 1° Dia 2017
Read the sentences below.
I- Canyou give me some information, please?
II- Those women are my teachers.
III- He doesn't have much money.
IV- Life is great!
Choose the option which defines the underlined nouns as U (uncountable) or C (countable).
Questão 12 306446FCM PB 2017/2
"A new crop of potential antibiotics may soon help fighting antibiotic-resistant infections, such as this batch of methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.”
"Antibiotics have been taking it on the chin lately. Not only has resistance to the medications been growing, but also drug companies have been dropping antibiotic research programs because the drugs are difficult and expensive to make. Now, help is on the way. Researchers report today that they’ve found a way to churn out new members of one of the most widely used classes of antibiotics, called macrolides. The work could lead to new weapons against antibiotic-resistant infections, and possibly save millions of lives.
Macrolides, drugs that include erythromycin and azithromycin, were first developed in the 1950s. Since then they’ve become a safeguard against bacterial and fungal infections. Chemically, macrolides are giant rings containing 14 to 16 carbon atoms, with one or more sugar appendages dangling off the side. Bacteria synthesize them to fight off their neighbors. Yet, bacteria didn’t evolve to make macrolides good drugs in people. So, medicinal chemists — the group of researchers that actually build new drugs — start with the natural versions and tweak their bonds one at a time in an effort to make them safer and more effective. But, in most cases, it’s impossible to confine the changes to just one bond on a large molecule. When multiple bonds react, the result is an unwanted broad mixture of end products, none of which contain just the one specific change desired for making a better drug.
To solve that problem, Harvard University chemist Andrew Myers and colleagues adapted a divide-and-conquer strategy that they had applied to tetracycline antibiotics back in 2005. They started with three basic macrolide ring structures and broke each one down into eight molecular “modules.” They then carefully mapped out reactions needed to put the pieces back together. For two such linkers, they even invented new chemical reactions to forge the bonds. This allowed them to tinker with the modules individually, and then reassemble them. By repeating the strategy over and over, they forged more than 300 entirely new macrolides.
When given to a panel of bacterial lab cultures, several of these compounds showed potent antibiotic activity against antibiotic-resistant microbes, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, the team reports online today in Nature. Perhaps equally important, Myers says, is that all the reactions used for the assembly produce high yields of the final products. That’s essential, he notes, because bacteria don’t produce the starting material for the new compounds. So, if any of them proves a valuable medicine, chemists will be able to synthesize large quantities of it cheaply from scratch.
“This is a great example of beautiful chemistry that will have a tangible societal benefit,” says Phil Baran, a synthetic organic chemist at the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego, California.”
(Adapted from: https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/05/new-way-makepowerful- antibiotics)
Select the proposition that presents the CORRECT explanation for each expression bellow, as they are used in the text.
Questão 15 112667FCM PB Medicina 2016/1
Ever had the feeling your past is slipping away? There’s a simple trick that should reinforce your recollections.
Have you ever seen or heard something amazing – a scene in a film, a joke or a song – only to forget it later on? Instead of the crystal clear images you wanted to recall, you’re instead left with scraps of images and mangled sentences, or more frustratingly still, nothing at all. Even monumental events, like meeting a film star, can sometimes fade surprisingly quickly.
There may be a disarmingly simple way to cement those memories, however. According to research by Chris Bird at the University of Sussex, all it requires is a few seconds of your time and a bit of imagination. Bird recently asked some students to lie in a brain scanner and view a series of short clips from YouTube (involving, for example, neighbors playing practical jokes on each other). Straight after some of the clips, they were given 40 seconds to replay the scene in their minds and describe it to themselves. For the others, they just moved onto a new video.
It turned out that simply describing the event to themselves massively improved their chances of remembering it accurately a week or so later: on average, they were able to remember twice as many details. Bird also found that his brain scans appeared to reflect the strength of the memory: when the activity during their descriptions closely mirrored the activation as they watched the video itself, the students seemed to have built particularly strong foundations for later recall.
That may, perhaps, be a sign of just how much effort and detail they were imagining as they described the scene. It could also be that it allowed the students to peg the events to other memories; one student compared a character in the clips to James Bond, for instance – instantly making him more memorable.
In other words, if you want to make sure something sticks in your mind, just take a minute or so to describe it to yourself, consciously and deliberately picking the most vivid details.
Bird can see how it might be particularly important in the courtroom. ―The findings have implications for any situation where accurate recall of an event is critical, such as witnessing an accident or crime,‖ he says. ―Memory for the event will be significantly improved if the witness rehearses the sequence of events as soon as possible afterwards.‖ But it could be equally helpful for anyone hoping to cling to something worth remembering.
(Adapted from http://www.bbc.com/future/story/, Nov/2015)
Choose the item which best completes the sentence bellow: “The _____ practical way to cement the memories of your dreams is _____ write them down as soon as you can.”
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