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Questão 8 5944807PUC-Rio 2020
How robot carers could be the future for lonely elderly people
Alessandro Di Nuovo
December 6, 2018
The film Robot and Frank imagined a near-future
where robots could do almost everything humans
could. The elderly title character was given a “robot
butler” to help him continue living on his own. The
robot was capable of everything from cooking and
 cleaning to socializing and, it turned out, burglary. This
kind of science fiction may turn out to be remarkably
prescient. As growing numbers of elderly people
require care, researchers believe that robots could be
 one way to address the overwhelming demand. But
even though robots might be able to provide care and,
in some cases, social interaction, many wonder if they
really are the right solution to this uniquely human
 Loneliness and social isolation are already
problems for many seniors and are even linked to
cognitive decline and a higher death rate. With the
population of seniors expected to rise, many worry
that experiences of loneliness will increase, especially
 if access to care is even more limited.
But despite concerns, early studies already show
that social robots – autonomous robots trained to
interact and communicate with humans – really could
address issues of care and social interaction. The
 majority of robotics researchers are largely in favour
of introducing robotic technology on a wider scale
and believe it could reduce loneliness and increase
independence in elderly patients. The Japanese
government even supports introducing robots in
 care homes to solve the country’s ageing population
problem. However, many strongly recommend
carefully balancing the care benefits against the
A class of social robots – mobile robotic
 telepresence systems (MRTs) – have already been
shown to generate positive social interactions with
elderly patients. MRTs are essentially video screens
on wheels raised to head height that can be controlled
remotely using a simple smartphone app. They allow
 relatives and social workers to “visit” elderly people
more often, even if they live in rural or distant places.
Elderly patients don’t need to operate the device,
leaving them free to interact with their social worker
or family. Communication still happens through a
 computer screen, but the robot’s physical presence
mimics face-to-face interaction for elderly people.
Research has shown that people reacted more
positively when talking with someone through an MRT
than through a regular video call or computer avatar –
 especially lonely people. However, MRTs still require
a human operator, which limits the amount of social
interaction seniors can have daily.
To tackle this, developers worldwide have
started creating robot companions programmed with
 advanced artificial intelligence (AI), which can interact
with people on their own. Some examples include
pet-like companion robots, including Aibo and Paro,
which are made by Japanese developers, and MiRo,
which is manufactured in the UK. Other humanoid
 robots, such as the Care-O-bot and Pepper, are able
to provide more complex and comprehensive care.
Though “pet” robots offer limited interaction, they
have proved as effective – or even more so – than
real pets in reducing loneliness for elderly people in
 care homes. Robotic dogs introduced in one UK care
home this year were reported to bring happiness and
comfort to residents.
On the other hand, humanoid robots are already
advanced enough to provide much-needed care to
 elderly people. These robots can pick things up and
move independently, and have a more natural, human
way of interacting, for example, using arm and hand
gestures. More advanced versions have additional
sensors and devices, including touchscreens. Many
 elderly people, finding the touchscreens hard to use,
preferred giving spoken commands to the robot and
reading its response off the screen. But for those with
age-related hearing loss or vision impairment, having
the option to use the touchscreen was indispensable.
 Humanoid robots are still being developed, so their
capabilities are still limited. Moreover, studies of
humanoid robots have mainly focused on evaluating
how well the technology functions without really
considering the social impact. There is also a general
 assumption that it will naturally reduce loneliness.
Though research into social robots is just
beginning, we do know they can provide some solutions
to the challenges mounted by ageing populations, and
could even help reduce social isolation and loneliness.
 At this point, humans are still better in providing care
and social contact to the elderly, but robots might
be able to fill any gaps, especially as technologies
continue to improve. However, before social robots
can be fully integrated into care homes, researchers
 and service providers must address public anxiety
and make it clear that robots are designed to assist
social workers, not replace them. As long as humans
remain in full control to prevent any danger, robots
might well be the future of care.
Available at:<https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgetsand-tech/features/robot-carer-elderly-people-lonelinessageing-population-care-homes-a8659801.html>. Retrieved on: July 2, 2019. Adapted.
The word assumption in “There is also a general assumption that it will naturally reduce loneliness.” (lines 84-85) can be replaced, without change in meaning, by
Questão 22 1592930Unit-AL Demais Cursos 2019/1
The latest innovation that’s changing the way
you break a sweat is likely to have even the most
internet-savvy millennials starry-eyed with workout
wonder.Today marks the release of the interactive
 gym, Mirror ($1,495, plus a $39 monthly subscription).
At first glance, the device looks like a sleek, no
frills reflective surface you might hang up to checkout
your leggings-sports bra combo before heading off to
spin class. Switch the device on however, and you’ll
 come face-to-face with a trainer who can lead you
through a full class of cardio, strength, yoga, Pilates,
barre, boxing, and stretch—all of which you can tailor
by time and skill-level to your personal fitness goals.
Visual feedback is at the center of the smart decor’s
 design. Not only can you see yourself and the trainer
as you perform each move in front of the device, but in
the live classes, the trainer can see you and offer you
feedback, like “Make sure you can see your toes in
 If you can’t catch one of the 50 or more real-time
sweat sessions offered per week, each category of
class is also available on-demand for midnight HIIT
(High Intensity Interval Training) sessions or spur of
the moment afternoon pick-me-ups.
Disponível em: https://www.wellandgood.com/good-sweat/mirror-athome-workout-equipment/. Acesso em: 05 mar. 2008. Adaptado.
Considering language use in the text, it’s correct to say:
Questão 28 2548480UPE 3º Fase 1º Dia SSA 2019
Considering the context and grammar rules, fill in the blank in the cartoon.
The CORRECT option is
Questão 14 2685687FCM PB 2019/2
TEXTO - Lung Cancer In Non Smoker
A group of respiratory medicine and public health experts are calling for lung cancer in never-smokers to be given greater recognition. Writing in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, they say that lung cancer in people who have never smoked is under recognised and presents a diagnostic challenge, particularly for GPs seeking to balance overinvestigation with early diagnosis and high quality care.
It is estimated that around 6,000 people in the UK who have never smoked die of lung cancer every year, greater than the numbers of people who die of cervical cancer (900), lymphoma (5,200), leukaemia (4,500) and ovarian cancer (4,200).
Major contributors to lung cancers in never-smokers include second-hand smoke, occupational carcinogen exposure and outdoor pollution. Globally, the use of solid fuels for indoor cooking and second-hand smoke exposure are important contributions to lung cancer in never-smokers and disproportionately affect women
Lead author, Professor Paul Cosford, Director for Health Protection & Medical Director, Public Health England, said: "This paper demonstrates an estimated 6,000 people who have never smoked die each year from lung cancer in the UK. This makes it, by itself, the eighth most common cause of cancer related death in the UK.
"For too long having lung cancer has only been thought of as a smoking related disease. This remains an important association but, as this this work shows, the scale of the challenge means there is a need to raise awareness with clinicians and policy makers of the other risk factors including indoor and outdoor air pollution.
"This is one reason why PHE published its review of the evidence and recommended specific actions local authorities can take to improve their air quality. By delivering on the promise of a clean air generation we can reduce the number of lung cancers among those who have never smoked."
Co-author Professor Mick Peake, clinical director of the Centre for Cancer Outcomes, University College London Hospitals Cancer Collaborative, said: "Despite advances in our understanding, most people who have never smoked do not believe they are at risk and often experience long delays in diagnosis, reducing their chances of receiving curative treatment."
Prof Peake added: "The stigma of smoking has been the major factor behind the lack of interest in, knowledge of and research into lung cancer. Therefore, in many ways, neversmokers who develop lung cancer are, as a result, disadvantaged.
"Drawing attention to the contribution of underlying risk factors to lung cancer in never-smokers presents opportunities to reinforce efforts to tackle other major public health challenges. For example, the impact of passive smoking and air pollution on lung cancers adds weight to the government's ambitions to improve air quality and the public, clinicians and policy makers must all be aware of this relationship
(Adapted from: www.sciencedaily.com)
According to the text, it can be understood that “awareness” (fifth paragraph) brings an idea of:
Questão 54 640967IFRR Superior 2019/1
With the objective of promoting literacy all over the world, the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) created, on September 8, the International Literacy Day. Nevertheless, five decades later, estimates point to a worldwide total of 738 million persons who cannot read or write. In Brazil, they were 13 million in 2015, according to data from the National Household Sample Survey (Pnad 2015).
PNAD shows that the illiteracy rate (percentage of illiterate persons by age group in the total number of persons in the same group) fell from 11.5%, in 2004, to 8%, in 2015. Illiteracy is more concentrated in the Northeast Region, where the rate reaches 16.2%, way above the figure in the South, 4.1%. Older groups record higher illiteracy rates: 25.7% among persons aged 65 and over, versus 0.8% in the group aged 15 to 19.
One of the solutions to change this situation is the Youth and Adult Education Program (Peja), attended by 26,230 students in the city of Rio de Janeiro alone, according to the Municipal Secretariat of Education. “Peja has a diversity of students”, says Fatima Valente, director of the Youth and Adult Education Municipal Reference Center (Creja). Due to that diversity, our classes fulfill different needs. “We do not have working students, we have workers who study. That’s why our schedule cannot be the same as in regular education”.
These programs have helped change the lives of many people, like Luciana Muniz, age 35, and Antônio Alves, age 65, both Peja students. Luciana states that having no education has been very humiliating. “At church I could never take part in Bible reading, and that made me sad”. Today she is very active in Church, wishes to keep on studying, to graduate in Gastronomy and dreams of opening up her own company. Antônio, in turn, quit studying to work in crops at the age of 7, and now says he will not stop again. “I study at home too. My wife finds it funny that I’m always holding a book. I can even read the small print on TV.”
(Fragment available on http://ojs.uwindsor.ca/ojs/leddy/index.php/informal_logic/article)
Choose the only CORRECT alternative which exposes a synonym of literacy:
Questão 10 184521ITA 2018
WE RECORDED VCs CONVERSATIONS AND ANALYZED HOW DIFFERENTLY THEY TALK ABOUT FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS
 When venture capitalists (VCs) evaluate investment proposals, the language they use to describe the
entrepreneurs who write them plays an important but often hidden role in shaping who is awarded funding
and why.[…] We were given access to government venture capital decision making meetings in Sweden and
were able to observe the types of language that VCs used over a two-year period. One major thing stuck out:
 The language used to describe male and female entrepreneurs was radically different. And these differences
have very real consequences for those seeking funding — and for society in general.
[…] Worldwide, government venture capital is important for bridging significant financial gaps and
supporting innovation and growth, as VCs can take risks where banks are not allowed to. When uncertainty is
high regarding assessment of product and market potential, for example, the assessment of the
 entrepreneur’s potential becomes highly central in government VCs’ decision making.
In Sweden, about one-third of businesses are owned and run by women, although they are not granted
a corresponding proportion of government funding. In fact, women-owned businesses receive much less —
only 13%–18%, the rest going to male-owned companies.
This brings us back to our research. From 2009 to 2010 we were invited to silently observe
 governmental VC decision-making meetings and, more important, the conversations they had about
entrepreneurs applying for funding. […] We observed closed-room, face-to-face discussions leading final
funding decisions for 125 venture applications. Of these, 99 (79%) were from male entrepreneurs and 26
(21%) were from female entrepreneurs. The group of government venture capitalists observed included
seven individuals: two women and five men. […]
 Aside from a few exceptions, the financiers rhetorically produce stereotypical images of women as
having qualities opposite to those considered important to being an entrepreneur, with VCs questioning their
credibility, trustworthiness, experience, and knowledge.
Conversely, when assessing male entrepreneurs, financiers leaned on stereotypical beliefs about men
that reinforced their entrepreneurial potential. Male entrepreneurs were commonly described as being
 assertive, innovative, competent, experienced, knowledgeable, and having established networks.
We developed male and female entrepreneur personas based on our findings […]. These personas
highlight a few key differences in how the entrepreneurs were perceived depending on their gender. Men
were characterized as having entrepreneurial potential, while the entrepreneurial potential for women was
diminished. Many of the young men and women were described as being young, though youth for men was
 viewed as promising, while young women were considered inexperienced. Men were praised for being
viewed as aggressive or arrogant, while women’s experience and excitement were tempered by discussions
of their emotional shortcomings. Similarly, cautiousness was viewed very differently depending on the gender
of the entrepreneur.
Unsurprisingly, these stereotypes seem to have played a role in who got funding and who didn’t.
 Women entrepreneurs were only awarded, on average, 25% of the applied-for amount, whereas men
received, on average, 52% of what they asked for. Women were also denied financing to a greater extent
than men, with close to 53% of women having their applications dismissed, compared with 38% of men. […]
Such stereotyping will inevitably influence the distribution of financing, but could also have other major
consequences. Because the purpose of government venture capital is to use tax money to stimulate growth
 and value creation for society as a whole, gender bias presents the risk that the money isn’t being invested in
businesses that have the highest potential. This isn’t only damaging for women entrepreneurs; it’s potentially
damaging for society as a whole.
Fonte: Adaptado de Harvard Business Review . Acesso em: 17 mai. 2017.
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