Questões de Inglês - Grammar
Questão 41 8541677ESA 2021
Todas as palavras abaixo formam o plural em inglês como a palavra “photo”, exceto:
Questão 3 3358552UFMS PASSE - 1ª Etapa 2018-2020
Read text to answer the question.
“Violence against women causes suffering and misery to victims and their families and places a heavy burden on societies worldwide. It mostly happens within intimate relationships or between people known to each other. Violence against women is a social construction based on a societal consensus about the roles and rights of men and women. Two prevalent forms of violence against women are physical and sexual victimization by an intimate partner, and sexual victimization outside intimate relationships. Explanations of why men engage in aggressive behavior toward women address different levels, including the macro level of society, the micro level of dyadic interactions, and the individual level of perpetrator characteristics. Prevention efforts are needed that address each of these levels.”
(Disponível em: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352250X17300489. Acesso em 23 nov. 2018).
In the sentence “Violence against women causes suffering and misery to victims and their families and places a heavy burden on societies worldwide”, the words in bold are:
Questão 19 304732FCM PB 2018/1
Wild and Captive Chimpanzees Share Personality Traits With Humans
A chimpanzee in Gombe National Park in Tanzania. Researchers have found that wild and captive chimps share personality traits much like those observed in humans. Credit: Alexander Weiss
"In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Jane Goodall started attributing personalities to the chimpanzees she followed in Gombe National Park in what is now Tanzania. In her descriptions, some were more playful or aggressive, affectionate or nurturing.
Many scientists at the time were horrified, she recalled. Considered an amateur — she didn’t yet have her Ph.D. — they contended she was inventing personality traits for animals. Dr. Goodall, now 83 years old, said in a phone interview on Monday from her home in England that scientists thought “I was guilty of the worst kind of anthropomorphism.”
But time has borne out her insights. Chimpanzees in the wild have personalities similar to those in captivity, and both strongly overlap with traits that are familiar in humans, a new study published in Scientific Data confirms. The new examination of chimpanzees at Gombe updates personality research conducted on 24 animals in 1973 to include more than 100 additional chimps that were evaluated a few years ago. The animals were individually assessed by graduate students in the earlier study, and in the latest by Tanzanian field assistants, on personality traits like agreeableness, extroversion, depression, aggression and self-control.
Researchers used different questionnaires to assess the chimps’ traits in the two studies, but most of the personality types were consistent across the two studies. These traits seen among wild chimps matched ones seen among captive animals, the study found, and are similar to those described in people. Dr. Goodall, who is promoting a new documentary, “Jane,” about those early days of her research, said she’s not surprised. She knew from childhood experiences with guinea pigs, tortoises and her favorite dog, Rusty, that animals have personalities that are quite familiar. “I honestly don’t think you can be close to any animals and not realize their very vivid personalities,” she said.
Clive Wynne, a professor and director of the Canine Science Collaboratory at Arizona State University in Tempe, who was not involved in the research, said the new study offered a “really rich picture” of the overlap among species. “It’s backing up and reinforcing a number of things that we assume about animal personality that are seldom established with this degree of security in substantial wild-living populations,” said Dr. Wynne, who concurs that dogs, his area of specialty, also have similar personality traits.
Robert Latzman, an associate professor at Georgia State University, who was not involved in the study, said his research with chimpanzees in zoos has always left open the question of whether animals in the wild are somehow different. “What’s exciting about these data is there’s some suggestion that wild apes look very similar to what we would expect in terms of basic dispositional traits and continuity of those traits — and I don’t mean just to captive chimpanzees, but to humans,” he said. “The work in the wild underscores how similar these animals truly are to humans.”
Alexander Weiss, who led the new study, said he was particularly interested in examining the personality traits of animals in the wild. His findings were in line with previous research he’s done on chimpanzees in captivity. “The fact that we’re showing this consistency in the wild is nice, because it allows us to draw more general conclusions,” said Dr. Weiss, a senior lecturer at the University of Edinburgh. “It’s not just being in a zoo that’s causing these individual traits to be stable.” The study’s underlying data will be made publicly available so other scientists can use them in their own research, he said.
Although most of the animals tested in 1973 had died by the time the recent analysis was conducted, the study also concluded that an animal’s personality traits were generally consistent over time. Dr. Goodall said that fits what she’s seen, too. She only visits Gombe twice a year now, and only two animals are still alive from the days when she knew them as individuals. One, a mother of twins named Gremlin, has changed a bit, Dr. Goodall said. “I think the main difference in her personality is she’s become more confident as she gets older, just like people do,” she said.
Dr. Goodall added that she’s pleased that researchers are still finding so much of interest at Gombe, and tapping into the expertise of Tanzanian field workers. And, of course, she’s happy that the academic perspective has shifted from the time when she was told only humans had personalities, minds and emotions. “Today you can get your Ph.D. studying animal personality. I think we’ve come around full-cycle,” she said. “It absolutely vindicates all that I’ve ever believed.”
(Adapted from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/24/science/chimpanzees-goodall.html)
“[…] I think the main difference in her personality is she’s become more confident as she gets older, just like people do, […]”
Assign the correct grammatical classes (underlined words) based on the order that they appear in the sentence above.
Questão 27 88984UEFS Caderno 1 2014/1
Globish: the new international language?
A French author and ex-vice president of IBM has
come up with a new reduced form of English to help
non-English speakers get by when they are abroad. In
his books Don’t Speak English, Parlez Globish and
5 Découvrez le Globish, Jean Paul Nerrière advocates the
use of Globish as the common language of international
Globish involves a vocabulary limited to 1,500
words. Other features include short sentences, an
10 absence of idiomatic expressions, and extensive hand
gestures to get the point across. It is not aimed at cultural
eloquence, Mr. Nerrière points out, but at “linguistic
efficiency, always, everywhere, with everyone.”
Mr. Nerrière originally started his investigations into
15 Globish in an effort to help other French men and women
sitting in business meetings held in English. He advised
them to content themselves with Globish instead of trying
to master the intricacies of formal English. Now his
globalized version of English is so common, he says,
20 that Americans, Britons, and other English speakers
should learn it, too.
Mr Nerrière says that native speakers of English
tend to stand out as strange in international business
meetings. This is due to their refusal to use the
25 elementary English adopted by colleagues from other
countries. He suggests they should make an effort to
speak like everybody else to appear less arrogant and
more open to doing business. He warns that commercial
ventures could depend upon the mastery of Globish: “If
30 you lose a contract to a rival because you’re speaking
an English that no one except another Anglophone
understands, then you’ve got a problem.”
Quick to dispel fears that Globish will mean the
end of other languages, Mr. Nerrière recommends that it
35 should only be used in international exchanges. It should
not, he insists, be used as a vehicle of culture. In other
words, he believes we should keep on learning languages
to read the great literary works of Molière, Shakespeare,
and Cervantes. He claims, however, that the best
40 language to talk about the price of steel in China is
OXENDEN, C. & Latham-Koenig, C. American English File ,Workbook 4 p.71 Oxford University Press
Considering language use in the text, it’s correct to say:
Questão 30 6307858EEAR 2022
“Why do bees fuss about so much when they fly?”. The singular of this sentence is:
Questão 48 4008219FMJ 2021
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
What Does It Mean to Tear Down a Statue?
Protesters throwing the statue of the slave trader Edward Colston into a harbour.
Statues of historical figures, including slave traders and Christopher Columbus, are being toppled throughout the U.S. and around the world. This follows years of debate about public display of Confederate symbols. We interviewed the art historian Erin L. Thompson about the topic. Read the excerpt from the interview.
Q. What are some of the issues that arise when we talk about statues being torn down?
A. We have as humans been making monuments to glorify people and ideas since we started making art, and since we started making statues, other people have torn them down. So it’s not surprising that we are seeing people rebelling against ideas that are represented by these statues today.
Q. What do the recent attacks on statues tell us about the protests themselves?
A. The current attacks on statues are a sign that what’s in question is not just our future but our past, as a nation, as a society. These attacks show that we need to question the way we understand the world, even the past, in order to get to a better future.
Q. What’s a statue?
A. I think a statue is a bid for immortality. It’s a way of solidifying an idea and making it present to other people. It’s not the statues themselves but the point of view that they represent. And these [the ones being destroyed] are statues in public places, right? So these are statues claiming that this version of history is the public version of history.
Also, many Confederate statues are made out of bronze, a metal that you can melt down. The ancient Greeks made their major monuments out of bronze. Hardly any of these survived because as soon as regimes changed, as soon as there was war, it got melted down and made into money or a statue of somebody else.
We have been in a period of peace and prosperity — not peace for everybody, but the U.S. hasn’t been invaded, we’ve had enough money to maintain statues. So our generation thinks of public art as something that will always be around. But this is a very ahistorical point of view. I wish that what is happening now with statues being torn down didn’t have to happen this way. But there have been peaceful protests against many of these statues which have come to nothing. So if people lose hope in the possibility of a peaceful resolution, they’re going to find other means.
(www.nytimes.com, 11.06.2020. Adaptado.)
No trecho do último parágrafo “they’re going to find other means”, o termo sublinhado pode ser substituído, sem alteração de sentido, por