Questão 52 212772UEMG 2018
Brazil must legalise drugs – its existing policy just destroys lives
For decades, guns and imprisonment have been the hallmarks of Brazil’s war against the drug trafficking. But the only way to beat the gangs is to stop creating criminals, says a top Brazilian judge
“The war raging in Rocinha, Latin America’s largest favela, has already been lost. Rooted in a dispute between gangs for control of drug trafficking, it has disrupted the daily life of the community in Rio de Janeiro since mid-September. With the sound of shots coming from all sides, schools and shops are constantly forced to close. Recently, a stray bullet killed a Spanish tourist. The war is not the only thing being lost.
For decades, Brazil has had the same drug policy approach. Police, weapons and numerous arrests. It does not take an expert to conclude the obvious: the strategy has failed. Drug trafficking and consumption have only increased. […]
In a case still before the Brazilian supreme court, I voted for decriminalising the possession of marijuana for private consumption. […]
Drugs are an issue that has a profound impact on the criminal justice system, and it is legitimate for the supreme court to participate in the public debate. So here are the reasons for my views.
First, drugs are bad and it is therefore the role of the state and society to discourage consumption, treat dependents and repress trafficking. The rationale behind legalisation is rooted in the belief that it will help in achieving these goals.
Second, the war on drugs has failed. Since the 1970s, under the influence and leadership of the US, the world has tackled this problem with the use of police forces, armies, and armaments. The tragic reality is that 40 years, billions of dollars, hundreds of thousands of prisoners and thousands of deaths later, things are worse. At least in countries like Brazil.
With these points in mind, what would legalisation achieve?
In most countries in North America and Europe, the greatest concern of the authorities is users and the impact drugs have on their lives and on society. These are all important considerations. In Brazil, however, the principal focus must be ending the dominance drug dealers exercise over poor communities. Gangs have become the main political and economic power in thousands of modest neighbourhoods in Brazil. This scenario prevents a family of honest and hard-working people from educating their children away from the influence of criminal factions, who intimidate, co-opt and exercise an unfair advantage over any lawful activity. Crucially, this power of trafficking comes from illegality.
Another benefit of legalisation would be to prevent the mass incarceration of impoverished young people with no criminal record who are arrested for trafficking because they are caught in possession of negligible amounts of marijuana. A third of detainees in Brazil are imprisoned for drug trafficking. Once arrested, young prisoners will have to join one of the factions that control the penitentiaries – and on that day, they become dangerous.
We cannot be certain that a progressive and cautious policy of decriminalisation and legalisation will be successful. What we can affirm is that the existing policy of criminalisation has failed. We must take chances; otherwise, we risk simply accepting a terrible situation. As the Brazilian navigator Amyr Klink said: “The worst shipwreck is not setting off at all.”
Disponível em: <https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/ 2017/nov/15/brazil-must-legalise-drugs-existing-policy- destroys-lives-luis-roberto-barroso-supreme-court-judge>. Acesso em: 14 nov. 2017.
Consider the following excerpt: “Since the 1970s, under the influence and leadership of the US, the world has tackled this problem with the use of police forces, armies, and armaments.” Mark the option which best describes the use of some words in the excerpt.
Questão 41 2237827EEAR 2015
Read the text and answer question.
The sun and the moon
The sun is a star. It's a ball of fire. The moon is rocky and
hard. It's not hot. The sun sends out light, but the moon
doesn't. In fact, the moon reflects the light.
The moon is about 240.000 miles away from us; the sun is
 93 million miles; that's why the moon looks almost as
large as the sun.
send out – produzir
The underlined words, in the text, are
Questão 37 105301FAMEVAÇO Tipo A 2013/1
Lessons in despair and broken dreams
1 I have been a teacher for eight years but I don’t spend much of my time actually teaching any more. These days my job is more as a social worker to the most vulnerable children from the toughest homes. I spend my days running a team of people within the school who handle the most difficult and most vulnerable kids.
2 There are 1,500 pupils, mostly from white working-class families and large numbers from one of the most socially deprived areas in the country. About half the families are living on benefits and most of the parents whose kids get into trouble have alcohol problems.
3 For some kids, school is where they come to escape from home. Most of the pupils will be vulnerable because their parents are alcoholic or they’re in foster care. If they do well, get good grades or win on sports day, their parents couldn’t care less. They’re not interested. They don’t see the point of school. These people just have children without any thought. When they become a nuisance they leave them to fend for themselves. That breaks your heart. We have to pick some pupils up from home just to make sure they arrive at school to sit their GCSEs. When you turn up at the family home the parents are often still asleep after a night drinking. We knock on the door, get them up and take them to school so they don’t miss the exams. Some of the parents aren’t allowed to come into the school at all. We have a list of about 10 parents who are banned from the premises because they would come to the school and abuse the teachers, usually only verbally. However once or twice I’ve thought: “This might end up with me lying in a pool of blood.”
4 Typically, the children I look after will have to get up by themselves in the morning. Most of them don’t eat a proper healthy breakfast, they just have something like a packet of crisps or a chocolate bar on the way to school and then have chips for tea.
5 When parents have no interest in education and don’t see any purpose in it, it can be a struggle. Once there was a dad who was angry with us about a GCSE exam that lasted until 4pm. School usually finishes at 3pm and he wanted his son home at the usual time. We tried to explain that it was a national exam but he wanted his son home to get his cigarrets from the newsagents.
6 We had a girl of 15 with an alcoholic mother who often got drunk and brought any man she’d met in the pub back home. The girl’s older sister got pregnant when she was 15 so we considered her a high risk. We gave her a mobile phone with the single condition that she always answered when the school or her teachers called. A fortnight after we gave it to her, she sold it for beer and cigarettes and two weeks later she was pregnant. It’s so disheartening.
7 It might seem surprising but some of the pupils from the most damaged homes can be the most committed.
8 They do surprisingly well in school because when things are really bad, when you’re the one getting breakfast for yourself up in the morning, getting breakfast for yourself and your younger brothers and sisters and turning up in time for registration with your homework done, then you have to have a much greater commitment than students in ordinary, loving homes. We had a girl of 15 who was being systematically beaten by her alcoholic father. She moved in with her grandmother and grandfather but then they threw her out.
9 We helped her to get a foster placement so she could continue at school but it was a very long way from school and her friends.
10 She had to take four buses to get to school every morning but she finished her CGSEs, went into the sixth form and now she’s going to university and wants to work in social services. She’s one of the positive stories but they can be few and far between. I had one boy who was a horrible, really unpleasant character. He’s now beating his girlfriend and although he hasn’t got children he probably soon will have, so he’ll be in the next group of parents causing problems. It’s a vicious cycle.
CGSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) é uma prova que os estudantes britânicos prestam aos 16 anos, ou seja, no final da escola obrigatória).
(FONTE: Speak Up Magazine issue #303, 2012)
Pick up, turn up, end up are examples of