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Questão 3 5944734PUC-Rio 2020
How robot carers could be the future for lonely elderly people
Alessandro Di Nuovo
December 6, 2018
The film Robot and Frank imagined a near-future
where robots could do almost everything humans
could. The elderly title character was given a “robot
butler” to help him continue living on his own. The
robot was capable of everything from cooking and
 cleaning to socializing and, it turned out, burglary. This
kind of science fiction may turn out to be remarkably
prescient. As growing numbers of elderly people
require care, researchers believe that robots could be
 one way to address the overwhelming demand. But
even though robots might be able to provide care and,
in some cases, social interaction, many wonder if they
really are the right solution to this uniquely human
 Loneliness and social isolation are already
problems for many seniors and are even linked to
cognitive decline and a higher death rate. With the
population of seniors expected to rise, many worry
that experiences of loneliness will increase, especially
 if access to care is even more limited.
But despite concerns, early studies already show
that social robots – autonomous robots trained to
interact and communicate with humans – really could
address issues of care and social interaction. The
 majority of robotics researchers are largely in favour
of introducing robotic technology on a wider scale
and believe it could reduce loneliness and increase
independence in elderly patients. The Japanese
government even supports introducing robots in
 care homes to solve the country’s ageing population
problem. However, many strongly recommend
carefully balancing the care benefits against the
A class of social robots – mobile robotic
 telepresence systems (MRTs) – have already been
shown to generate positive social interactions with
elderly patients. MRTs are essentially video screens
on wheels raised to head height that can be controlled
remotely using a simple smartphone app. They allow
 relatives and social workers to “visit” elderly people
more often, even if they live in rural or distant places.
Elderly patients don’t need to operate the device,
leaving them free to interact with their social worker
or family. Communication still happens through a
 computer screen, but the robot’s physical presence
mimics face-to-face interaction for elderly people.
Research has shown that people reacted more
positively when talking with someone through an MRT
than through a regular video call or computer avatar –
 especially lonely people. However, MRTs still require
a human operator, which limits the amount of social
interaction seniors can have daily.
To tackle this, developers worldwide have
started creating robot companions programmed with
 advanced artificial intelligence (AI), which can interact
with people on their own. Some examples include
pet-like companion robots, including Aibo and Paro,
which are made by Japanese developers, and MiRo,
which is manufactured in the UK. Other humanoid
 robots, such as the Care-O-bot and Pepper, are able
to provide more complex and comprehensive care.
Though “pet” robots offer limited interaction, they
have proved as effective – or even more so – than
real pets in reducing loneliness for elderly people in
 care homes. Robotic dogs introduced in one UK care
home this year were reported to bring happiness and
comfort to residents.
On the other hand, humanoid robots are already
advanced enough to provide much-needed care to
 elderly people. These robots can pick things up and
move independently, and have a more natural, human
way of interacting, for example, using arm and hand
gestures. More advanced versions have additional
sensors and devices, including touchscreens. Many
 elderly people, finding the touchscreens hard to use,
preferred giving spoken commands to the robot and
reading its response off the screen. But for those with
age-related hearing loss or vision impairment, having
the option to use the touchscreen was indispensable.
 Humanoid robots are still being developed, so their
capabilities are still limited. Moreover, studies of
humanoid robots have mainly focused on evaluating
how well the technology functions without really
considering the social impact. There is also a general
 assumption that it will naturally reduce loneliness.
Though research into social robots is just
beginning, we do know they can provide some solutions
to the challenges mounted by ageing populations, and
could even help reduce social isolation and loneliness.
 At this point, humans are still better in providing care
and social contact to the elderly, but robots might
be able to fill any gaps, especially as technologies
continue to improve. However, before social robots
can be fully integrated into care homes, researchers
 and service providers must address public anxiety
and make it clear that robots are designed to assist
social workers, not replace them. As long as humans
remain in full control to prevent any danger, robots
might well be the future of care.
Available at:<https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgetsand-tech/features/robot-carer-elderly-people-lonelinessageing-population-care-homes-a8659801.html>. Retrieved on: July 2, 2019. Adapted.
The meaning of the word address depends on the context in which it is used. The option in which its meaning is the same as in “As growing numbers of elderly people require care, researchers believe that robots could be one way to address the overwhelming demand.” (lines 8-10) is
Questão 39 399083EEAR 2018/1
Complete the sentences below using make or do:
1 – She forgot to __________ her homework.
2 – During the text, try not to __________ a noise.
3 – She needs to __________ an appointment to see the destist.
4 – Every morning I _________ my bed.
Questão 29 93548UnB 1º Dia 2013/2
Based on the cartoon above, judge item.
The man’s decision to take up woodworking happened at an indefinite time in the past.
Questão 11 201860UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2018
Pope Francis disappoints Rohingya by failing to condemn persecution
 As the crowds trickled out of the
Yangon sports ground where Pope Francis
delivered his first public mass before tens of
thousands of people, Khin Maung Myint, a
 Rohingya activist, sat on the sidelines. He
was disappointed. Not in Francis, but in the
advisers who appear to have dissuaded the
pontiff from bringing up the plight of the
Rohingya people. “Rohingya are not the
 ones who lost their dignity, but the people
who silence the pope’s expression,” he said.
“Those who pushed the pope not to use the
word Rohingya, they are the ones who lost
 Francis is nearing the end of a
four-day visit to Myanmar, previously
known as Burma, in which he has not
publicly spoken about the persecuted
Muslim minority, more than 620,000 of
 whom have fled to Bangladesh in recent
months, escaping what western leaders are
calling ethnic cleansing.
Among the guests in the VIP
section, where a gazebo provided protection
 from the hot Myanmar sun, was Aye Ne
Win, the grandson of the country’s first
dictator who attracted public derision
recently after he dressed up as the pope for
Halloween. Beside him, in a black veil, sat a
 beauty queen who has described the
Rohingya in a YouTube video as “harbingers
of terror and violence”.
In his homily on Wednesday, the
pope talked about the need for forgiveness
 and ignoring the desire for revenge, but
declined to reference violence meted out
against the Rohingya, a campaign allegedly
marked by gang-rape, massacres and
arson. “We think that healing can come
 from anger or revenge,” Francis said,
speaking of the many “wounded” people in
Myanmar. “Yet the way of revenge is not
the way of Jesus,” he said. It was his
second public address in Myanmar, coming
 after he shared a stage with the state
counsellor, Aung San Suu Kyi, on Tuesday,
telling an audience of diplomats and
journalists that all of Myanmar’s religious
and minority ethnic groups – “none
 excluded” – should be respected.
Both speeches have fallen short of
what many expected from the pope, whose
advocacy for refugees has been a
benchmark of his papacy. He has previously
 referred to “our Rohingya brothers and
sisters”. At a press conference in Yangon on
Wednesday night, papal spokesman Greg
Burke said the moral authority of the Pope
“still stands”. “You can criticize what is said
 or not said but the Pope is not going to lose
any moral authority on this question here,”
The Rohingya have suffered
decades of persecution in Myanmar, where
 their freedoms have been slowly eroded and
tens of thousands are confined to
internment camps. They are widely deemed
illegal immigrants from Bangladesh and
labelled “Bengalis”. “For years the
 international community has towed the
government of Myanmar’s line, refusing to
say ‘Rohingya’ for fear of doing harm,” said
David Baulk, a Myanmar researcher for
Fortify Rights. “There should be nothing
 controversial about the pope identifying
people by the name they want.”
Whether or not the pope should
address the crisis has been a matter of
debate within the Vatican since the visit was
 announced, according to a source familiar
with discussions. “There are probably a mix
of voices in the Vatican,” they said. “Those
who are old school diplomats for whom
caution is always their watchword and
 others who are a bit more bold.”
The most vocal was until recently
Charles Maung Bo, Myanmar’s first cardinal,
a powerful orator who has fiercely defended
the Rohingya and condemned “merchants of
 hatred” in the form of Buddhist
ultranationalists who have sanctioned the
Before this week’s visit he urged
the pope not to use the word, though he
 has made it clear he would have been
happy with a compromise phrase, according
to the source. “I think one factor in this was
almost certainly pressure from within the
church on him because he has been so
 outspoken until now and I think there would
have been an enormous amount of pressure
from other bishops,” the source said.
Who are the Rohingya?
At the press conference on
 Wednesday night, the split between the
bishops was apparent, with one saying
there was a lack of “reliable evidence” of
atrocities and was not sure what was going
on because he had not seen it himself.
 The silence is likely to appease
many Catholics in the country who either
share prejudices against the Rohingya or
are afraid of a nationalist backlash against
the 650,000-strong Catholic community in
Francis is scheduled to fly to
Dhaka in Bangladesh where he will meet
Rohingya refugees on Thursday. But for
some in Myanmar, the leader of the church
 has a moral obligation not to leave the
country without commenting on its most
After the mass, Father Thomas, a
Yangon priest, said he hoped the pope
 brought the matter up in closed-door
meetings this week with the army chief, Min
Aung Hlaing, and Aung San Suu Kyi.
“This is the main issue in Burma,”
In “Before this week’s visit he urged the pope not to use the word...” (lines 93-94), there is an example of
Questão 16 130242FCM PB Medicina 2017/1
You mean I don’t have to show up? The promise of telemedicine
“Aside from whatever a visit to the doctor costs you in money, it also costs you in time. A lot of it!
End to end, the travel and waiting time for a doctor’s appointment can take several hours — often disrupting work or school. Only 17 percent of it — 20 minutes, on average — is spent actually seeing the doctor, according to a study by the University of Pittsburgh, physician Kristin Ray and colleagues at the Harvard Medical School and the RAND Corporation.
In a year, Americans spend 2.4 billion hours making doctor visits. Valued at average wage rates, that’s worth more than $52 billion — equivalent to the total working time and income of 1.2 million people. On average, we pay $32 when visiting a doctor. But separately, the value of our time adds up to more, $43, according to Dr. Ray’s study.
For certain kinds of health care, there is a better way. Long after electronic communication and technology have revolutionized other services (like preparing taxes, booking travel and banking), emails, phone calls, video chats and other telemedicine applications are gradually supplementing or replacing some types of office visits.
Telemedicine holds the promise of giving some of our time back. And it may have other advantages. Care delivered in this way requires no travel, and if one waits at all it’s at home or work, not at a doctor’s office. In an era of FaceTime and Skype, patients are starting to expect more convenient access to doctors. The vast majority of patients report that they want to be able to communicate with their doctors by email. Perhaps for this reason, the market for telemedicine is growing rapidly.
In a passionate commentary on the establishment’s hesitancy to embrace telemedicine, David Asch, a University of Pennsylvania physician, pointed out that the inconvenience of face-to-face care limits its use, but arbitrarily and invisibly. The costs of waiting and travel time and those borne by rural populations with poor access to in-person care don’t appear on the books. “The innovation that telemedicine promises is not just doing the same thing remotely,” Dr. Asch wrote, “but awakening us to the many things that we thought required face-to-face contact but actually do not. ”
(Adapted from: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/upshot/you-mean-i-dont-have-to-show-up-the-promise-of-telemedicine.html?ref=policy)
“[…] In an era of FaceTime and Skype, patients are starting to expect more convenient access to doctors. […]”
Assign the correct grammatical classes (underlined words) based on the order that they appear in the sentence above.
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