Questão 22 262884UNCISAL 2° Dia 2017
There were lots of stuff in Friends that people had missed the first time, only for it to be rediscovered 12 years after the series finale. If you spend a lot of your time on the Internet then you'll probably be aware of that. Fans have noticed famous scenes where Matthew Perry almost cracked-up, and people have even spotted pies going missing from tables when Brad Pitt appeared on the show. And there’s the moment an extra chewed her coffee. […]
Disponível em: . Acesso em: 16 nov. 2016 (adaptado).
Os verbos em destaque estão empregados, respectivamente, nos seguintes tempos verbais:
Questão 95 234323UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2012/2
T E X T
SPEAKING two languages rather than just one has obvious practical benefits in an increasingly globalized world. But in recent years, scientists have begun to show that the advantages of bilingualism are even more fundamental than being able to converse with a wider range of people. Being bilingual, it turns out, makes you smarter. It can have a profound effect on your brain, improving cognitive skills not related to language and even shielding against dementia in old age.
This view of bilingualism is remarkably different from the understanding of bilingualism through much of the 20th century. Researchers, educators and policy makers long considered a second language to be an interference, cognitively speaking, that hindered a child’s academic and intellectual development.
They were not wrong about the interference: there is ample evidence that in a bilingual’s brain both language systems are active even when he is using only one language, thus creating situations in which one system obstructs the other. But this interference, researchers are finding out, isn’t so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, giving the mind a workout that strengthens its cognitive muscles.
Bilinguals, for instance, seem to be more adept than monolinguals at solving certain kinds of mental puzzles. In a 2004 study by the psychologists Ellen Bialystok and Michelle MartinRhee, bilingual and monolingual preschoolers were asked to sort blue circles and red squares presented on a computer screen into two digital bins — one marked with a blue square and the other marked with a red circle.
In the first task, the children had to sort the shapes by color, placing blue circles in the bin marked with the blue square and red squares in the bin marked with the red circle. Both groups did this with comparable ease. Next, the children were asked to sort by shape, which was more challenging because it required placing the images in a bin marked with a conflicting color. The bilinguals were quicker at performing this task.
The collective evidence from a number of such studies suggests that the bilingual experience improves the brain’s so-called executive function — a command system that directs the attention processes that we use for planning, solving problems and performing various other mentally demanding tasks. These processes include ignoring distractions to stay focused, switching attention willfully from one thing to another and holding information in mind — like remembering a sequence of directions while driving.
Why does the tussle between two simultaneously active language systems improve these aspects of cognition? Until recently, researchers thought the bilingual advantage stemmed primarily from an ability for inhibition that was honed by the exercise of suppressing one language system: this suppression, it was thought, would help train the bilingual mind to ignore distractions in other contexts. But that explanation increasingly appears to be inadequate, since studies have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals even at tasks that do not require inhibition, like threading a line through an ascending series of numbers scattered randomly on a page.
The key difference between bilinguals and monolinguals may be more basic: a heightened ability to monitor the environment. “Bilinguals have to switch languages quite often — you may talk to your father in one language and to your mother in another language,” says Albert Costa, a researcher at the University of PompeuFabra in Spain. “It requires keeping track of changes around you in the same way that we monitor our surroundings when driving.” In a study comparing German-Italian bilinguals with Italian monolinguals on monitoring tasks, Mr. Costa and his colleagues found that the bilingual subjects not only performed better, but they also did so with less activity in parts of the brain involved in monitoring, indicating that they were more efficient at it.
The bilingual experience appears to influence the brain from infancy to old age (and there is reason to believe that it may also apply to those who learn a second language later in life).
In a 2009 study led by Agnes Kovacs of the International School for Advanced Studies in Trieste, Italy, 7-month-old babies exposed to two languages from birth were compared with peers raised with one language. In an initial set of trials, the infants were presented with an audio cue and then shown a puppet on one side of a screen. Both infant groups learned to look at that side of the screen in anticipation of the puppet. But in a later set of trials, when the puppet began appearing on the opposite side of the screen, the babies exposed to a bilingual environment quickly learned to switch their anticipatory gaze in the new direction while the other babies did not.
Bilingualism’s effects also extend into the twilight years. In a recent study of 44 elderly Spanish-English bilinguals, scientists led by the neuropsychologist Tamar Gollan of the University of California, San Diego, found that individuals with a higher degree of bilingualism — measured through a comparative evaluation of proficiency in each language — were more resistant than others to the onset of dementia and other symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease: the higher the degree of bilingualism, the later the age of onset.
Nobody ever doubted the power of language. But who would have imagined that the words we hear and the sentences we speak might be leaving such a deep imprint?
The verbs of the sentences “In the first task, the children sorted the shapes by color.”, “…since studies have shown that bilinguals…” and “Why does the tussle between two simultaneously active language systems improve these aspects of cognition?” are respectively in the
Questão 13 1360041AFA 2011
Read the fragment about traditional religions in Africa and answer question
Religion ________ central to people's lives in Africa. Although the majority of Africans are now Muslim or Christian, traditional religions have endured and still play a big role. Religion runs like a thread through daily life, marked by prayers of gratitude in times of plenty and prayers of supplication in times of need. Religion confirms identity on the individual and the group.
Endure – to continue to exist for a long time
Thread – one part connecting with another
Mark the alternative that completes the gap from the text correctly.
Questão 57 9549705FACERES 2022
Use the comic strip bellow to answer question:
Dilbert by Scott Adams
According to the comic strip, the verb tense used in the stretch “The marketing department has asked us to make our products more robust” is:
Questão 39 390702EEAR 2019/1
Read the text and answer question.
Chennai floods: Know which flights are cancelled!
 New Delhi: In the wake of incessant rain and heavy
downpour in Chennai leading to floods that have affected
normal lives, various domestic flights have cancelled their
services to and from the city.
 Leading domestic carrier IndiGo airlines announced on its
official Facebook page that few flights connecting to Chennai
for Thursday have been cancelled.
“Flight operations to and from Chennai have been
affected due to heavy rains. Few flights connecting following
 cities to Chennai are cancelled for tomorrow - Hyderabad,
Mumbai, Kochi, Kolkota, Pune, Coimbatore, Delhi &
Vizag”, the company said on its official FB page.
The company, however, assured that all passengers would
be refunded 100 percent.
Adapted from: http://zeenews.india.com/business/news/companies/chennaifloods-know-which-flights-are-cancelled_1829506.html
Considering the underlined expression in the sentence “Flight operations to and from Chennai have been affected due to heavy rains” (lines 8 and 9), it is correct to say that
Questão 45 390775EEAR 2019/1
Read the text and answer question.
The Last Dalai Lama?
 On a wet Sunday in June at the Glastonbury Festival,
more than 100,000 people spontaneously burst into a
rendition of ‘‘Happy Birthday.’’ Onstage, Tenzin Gyatso, the
14th Dalai Lama, blew out the solitary candle on a large
 birthday cake while clasping the hand of Patti Smith, who
stood beside him. The world’s most famous monk then poked
a thick finger at Smith’s silvery mane. ‘‘Musicians,’’ he said,
‘‘white hair.’’ But ‘‘the voice and physical action,’’ he added
in his booming baritone, ‘‘forceful.’’ As Smith giggled, he
 went on: ‘‘So, that gives me encouragement. Myself, now 80
years old, but I should be like you — more active!’’
Taken from www.nytimes.com. Acessed on 14/12/15.
The correct form of the sentence “more than 100,000 people burst into a rendition of ‘Happy Birthday’ ” (lines 2 and 3) in the present perfect is: