Questões de Inglês - Grammar - Conditional sentences
Questão 20 7900563 FácilUNIEVA Medicina 2021/1
Read the situation and choose the best sentence using the third conditional.
I didn't know how good the new computers were. I didn't buy one.
Questão 41 762920 FácilEEAR 2016/1
Select the alternative that indicates the type of conditional in the sentence below.
According to scientists, if the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases, there will be a global warming.
Questão 12 9757725 MédioUECE 2º Fase 1º dia 2023/2
New Translations Explore Brazil’s ‘Endless and Unfinished’ Character
Mário de Andrade’s novel
“Macunaíma: The Hero With No Character”
follows a shape-shifting, rule-flouting, race-
switching trickster as he roams the vast nation of
 Brazil, meeting historical characters, folkloric
figures, and outrageously satirized stereotypes
along the way.
Rich with words and references from
Indigenous and Afro-Brazilian cultures, the
 modernist novel was hailed as a classic upon its
publication in 1928, and has long been seen as an
allegory for Brazil’s unique cultural blend. Faced
with criticism of the book’s uncredited reliance on
anthropological research, Andrade offered up, in
 an open letter, a typically insouciant response: “I
Some scholars have deemed the book’s
complexity virtually untranslatable — but this
week, New Directions published a new translation
 of “Macunaíma” by Katrina Dodson that aims to
transport Andrade’s idiosyncratic prose into
English. Over six years of research, Dodson
familiarized herself with every aspect of the
novel. She chased down obscure flora and fauna
 on two trips to the Amazon, waded through
reams of critical commentary, immersed herself
in Andrade’s archives in São Paulo and discussed
the book’s continued relevance with
contemporary Brazilians. While she found that for
 some readers the book continues to represent
the “endless and unfinished” national spirit of
Brazil, she also met many Afro-Brazilian and
Indigenous artists who have set out to reclaim the
folkloric roots that Andrade drew on.
 Inspired by her research, Dodson hopes
that her new translation will emphasize just how
deeply personal, and multifaceted, the concept of
Brazil was for Andrade. “He had African heritage
on both sides. Once you know more about him
 and more about the context of how he wrote this
book, you understand that there are a lot of very
sincere and serious questions at the heart of it.”
The notion that the book and its main
character are a stand-in for the country and its
 “amalgamation of different races and ethnicities”
has helped establish “Macunaíma” as a canonical
novel, read in every classroom devoted to
Brazilian literature, said Pedro Meira Monteiro,
chair of Spanish and Portuguese at Princeton
 University. But it would be a mistake to read it as
a nationalist project, he said. “Mário is so
profoundly charmed by the endless and
unfinished character of Brazil,” he said, referring
to the author by his first name, with the
 familiarity common to Andrade’s readers in
Brazil.“ He is seeing something that he recognizes
as his and at the same time not,” he said. “There’s
a problematic sense of belonging in his work that
 A more personal register is on full
display in “The Apprentice Tourist,” the first
translation of another Andrade book by Flora
Thomson-DeVeaux that was also published this
week by Penguin Classics. Compiled from notes
 Andrade made during his first trip to the Amazon
shortly before “Macunaíma” was released, “The
Apprentice Tourist” shows Andrade’s fascination
with Amazonian cultures — and his utter
boredom with the government officials and elites
 who welcomed the group of travelers along the
Andrade was born in São Paulo, the
country’s industrial capital, in 1893. He enrolled
in São Paulo’s Dramatic and Musical Conservatory
 at age 11 to train as a concert pianist, taught
himself French and became enamored with the
poetry of the Symbolists. By his mid-20s he was
traveling throughout Brazil, publishing poetry and
essays on folklore along the way.
 Andrade’s fascination with the
multiplicities of Brazilian culture placed him at the
center of the modernist movements that were
sweeping the country in the 1920s. “Macunaíma”
was first excerpted in the Revista de
 Antropofagia, the journal edited by Oswald de
Andrade (no relation), whose 1928 manifesto
proclaimed that Brazilian thinkers needed to
reject European artifice and “cannibalize” native
forms of storytelling to produce a new Brazilian
 art. Antropofagia, or anthropophagy in English,
refers to the eating of human flesh.
The book found an admiring readership
among the Brazilian intelligentsia, but even they
were struck by its incongruities. One critic, João
 Ribeiro — a prominent folklorist himself — called
it “voluntarily barbarous, primeval, an assortment
of disconnected fragments put together by a
commentator incapable of any coordination.”
Dodson approached the book because
 she felt the existing English translation, E.A.
Goodland’s 1984 version for Random House, had
smoothed over the “joy and poetry of the
language, and the cultural politics of the
particular mix of languages.”
 Take the book’s first line, which half a
dozen Brazilian artists and scholars interviewed
by The New York Times quoted, unprompted,
from memory: “No fundo do mato-virgem nasceu
Macunaíma, herói da nossa gente.” Goodland’s
 translation of the first line ignores Andrade’s
sentence structure. It starts: “In a far corner of
Northern Brazil” — words that do not exist in the
original — then continues, “at an hour when so
deep a hush had fallen on the virgin forest….”
 Goodland, a retired technical director for a sugar
company in Guyana, was “well-versed in all of the
natural history foundation of the book,” Dodson
said, “but he completely missed the spirit of what
the book is trying to do.”
 Dodson decided to essentially
transliterate the line, despite the grammatical
awkwardness it introduces in English: “In the
depths of the virgin-forest was born Macunaíma,
hero of our people.” The importance of the line,
 she said, is not in establishing where the action is
taking place, as Goodland had done, but in
bringing the reader into the fold of the people at
hand. “Macunaíma is our hero,” she said.
As her knowledge of the book
 deepened, Dodson said, she found herself
walking back some of her own interventions to
maintain the “music” of the original. “A lot of the
words in the book are not in the regular Brazilian
Portuguese dictionaries,” Dodson noted. “Or if
 they are, the meanings are ambiguous. My goal
was to make you feel the joy of language in the
book, to be carried along by all the humor and
the colloquial ways in which people speak, but
also by the beautiful sounds of the Indigenous
For the Brazilian artists behind the
book’s many adaptations into film, theater, and
art, Andrade’s insistence on maintaining the
complex vernacular that he overheard on his
 travels is precisely what makes the book so vital.
“The book’s difficulty is its genius,” said Iara
Rennó, a São Paulo-based musician. Shortly after
reading the book for the first time and becoming
enamored by its musicality, Rennó began writing
 her 2008 album, “Macunaíma Ópera Tupi.”
“‘Macunaíma’ puts the reader, who is used to so
called ‘well-written’ Portuguese, into a state of
transgression,” she said. “And that transgression
is so important. It feeds culture.”
 Some scholars have compared
“Macunaíma” to James Joyce’s “Ulysses,” another
totemic modernist novel from the 1920s whose
allusive, wide-ranging play with language is as
central to its identity as its plot. “The elites in
 Brazil love to think of themselves as dislocated
Europeans,” said Caetano Galindo, whose
innovative 2012 translation of “Ulysses” into
Brazilian Portuguese won the prestigious Jabuti
prize. Andrade, he added, “had a huge role in
 facing the fact that this is not a true monolingual
Nearly a century after its publication,
many of the novel’s Brazilian admirers are unsure
of how it will be received in the United States.
 “Macunaíma is always on the verge of being
canceled,” said Meira Monteiro, the Princeton
Adapted from: https://www.nytimes.com/2023/04/07
The sentences “Rich with words and references from Indigenous and Afro-Brazilian cultures, the modernist novel was hailed as a classic upon its publication in 1928, and has long been seen as an allegory for Brazil’s unique cultural blend.” (lines 08-12) and “Over six years of research, Dodson familiarized herself with every aspect of the novel.” (lines 22-24) are, respectively,
Questão 15 6715312 MédioUSS 2022/1
PREDICTING TOOTH LOSS
Machine-learning algorithms may help identify those at risk
Tooth loss is often accepted as a natural part of aging, but what if there was a way to better identify
those most susceptible without the need for a dental exam? New research led by investigators at Harvard
School of Dental Medicine suggests that machine learning tools can help identify those at greatest risk for
tooth loss and refer them for further dental assessment in an effort to ensure early interventions to avert
 or delay the condition.
The study compared five algorithms using a different combination of variables to screen for risk. The results
showed those that factored medical characteristics and socioeconomic variables, such as race, education,
arthritis, and diabetes, outperformed algorithms that relied on dental clinical indicators alone.
Tooth loss can be physically and psychologically debilitating. It can undoubtedly affect quality of life,
 well-being, nutrition, and social interactions. The process can be delayed, even prevented, if the earliest signs of dental disease are identified, and the condition treated promptly. Yet, many people with dental disease may not see a dentist until the process has advanced far beyond the point of saving a tooth. This is precisely where screening tools could help identify those at highest risk and refer them for further assessment, the team said. This approach could also be used globally, in a variety of health care settings,
 even by non-dental professional.
“Our findings suggest that the machine-learning algorithm models incorporating socioeconomic
characteristics were better at predicting tooth loss than those relying on routine clinical dental indicators
alone,” Elani said. “This work highlights the importance of social determinants of health. Knowing the
patient’s education level, employment status, and income is just as relevant for predicting tooth loss as
 assessing their clinical dental status.
Indeed, it has long been known that low-income and marginalized populations experience a disproportionate
share of the burden of tooth loss, due to lack of regular access to dental care, among other reasons, and
early identification and prompt care are critical in preventing tooth loss. These new findings point to an
important new tool in achieving that and Dr. Elani and her research team shed new light on how they can
 most effectively target prevention efforts and improve quality of life for patients.
Adapted from sciencedaily.com. June 24, 2021. Accessed 17 September 2021.
Yet, many people with dental disease may not see a dentist until the process has advanced far beyond the point of saving a tooth. (l. 11-12)
A word with the same semantic value can be found in one of the fragments below:
Questão 60 7176259 MédioPUC-SP Inverno 2019
Responda a questão de acordo com o texto abaixo
The drugs don’t work: what happens after antibiotics?
Antibiotic resistance is growing so fast that routine surgery could soon become impossible. But scientists are fighting back in the battle against infection
1- The first antibiotic that didn’t work for Debbi Forsythe was trimethoprim. In March 2016, Forsythe, a genial primary care counsellor from Morpeth, Northumberland, contracted a urinary tract infection. UTIs are common: more than 150 million people worldwide contract one every year. So when Forsythe saw her GP, they prescribed the usual treatment: a three-day course of antibiotics. When, a few weeks later, she fainted and started passing blood, she saw her GP again, who again prescribed trimethoprim.
2- Three days after that, Forsythe’s husband Pete came home to find his wife lying on the sofa, shaking, unable to call for help. He rushed her to A&E. She was put on a second antibiotic, gentamicin, and treated for sepsis, a complication of the infection that can be fatal if not treated quickly. The gentamicin didn’t work either. Doctors sent Forsythe’s blood for testing, but such tests can take days: bacteria must be grown in cultures, then tested against multiple antibiotics to find a suitable treatment. Five days after she was admitted to hospital, Forsythe was diagnosed with an infection of multi-drug-resistant E coli, and given ertapenem, one of the so-called “last resort” antibiotics.
3- It worked. But damage from Forsythe’s episode has lingered and she lives in constant fear of an infection reoccurring. Six months after her collapse, she developed another UTI, resulting, again, in a hospital stay. “I’ve had to accept that I will no longer get back to where I was,” she says. “My daughter and son said they felt like they lost their mum, because I wasn’t who I used to be.” But Forsythe was fortunate. Sepsis currently kills more people in the UK than lung cancer, and the number is growing, as more of us develop infections immune to antibiotics.
4- Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) – the process of bacteria (and yeasts and viruses) evolving defense mechanisms against the drugs we use to treat them – is progressing so quickly that the UN has called it a “global health emergency”. At least 2 million Americans contract drug-resistant infections every year. So-called “superbugs” spread rapidly, in part because some bacteria are able to borrow resistance genes from neighbouring species via a process called horizontal gene transfer. In 2013, researchers in China discovered E coli containing mcr-1, a gene resistant to colistin, a last-line antibiotic that, until recently, was considered too toxic for human use. Colistin-resistant infections have now been detected in at least 30 countries.
5- “In India and Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, and countries in South America, the resistance problem is already endemic,” says Colin Garner, CEO of Antibiotic Research UK. In May 2016, the UK government’s Review on Antimicrobial Resistance forecast that by 2050 antibiotic-resistant infections could kill 10 million people per year – more than all cancers combined.
6- “We have a good chance of getting to a point where for a lot of people there are no [effective] antibiotics,” Daniel Berman, leader of the Global Health team at Nesta, told me. The threat is difficult to imagine. A world without antibiotics means returning to a time without organ transplants, without hip replacements, without many now-routine surgeries. It would mean millions more women dying in childbirth; make many cancer treatments, including chemotherapy, impossible; and make even the smallest wound potentially lifethreatening. As Berman told me: “Those of us who are following this closely are actually quite scared.”
7- Bacteria are everywhere: in our bodies, in the air, in the soil, coating every surface in their sextillions. Many bacteria produce antibiotic compounds – exactly how many, we don’t know – probably as weapons in a microscopic battle for resources between different strains of bacteria that has been going on for billions of years. Because bacteria reproduce so quickly, they are able to evolve with astonishing speed. Introduce bacteria to a sufficiently weak concentration of an antibiotic and resistance can emerge within days. Penicillin resistance was first documented in 1940, a year before its first use in humans. (A common misconception is that people can become antibioticresistant. They don’t – the bacteria do.)
Oliver Franklin-Wallis Sun 24 Mar 2019 In: https://www.theguardian.com/global/2019/mar/24/ the-drugs-dont-work-what-happens-after-antibiotics
No sexto parágrafo, outra maneira de dizer “Those of us who are following this closely are actually quite scared”, pode ser
Questão 15 7891252 MédioUNIEVA Medicina 2019/1
Read the text and choose the correct option for the question
Why stress causes people to overeat
Stress eating can ruin your weight loss goals – the key is to find ways to relieve stress without overeating
1. There is much truth behind the phrase "stress eating." Stress, the hormones it unleashes, and the effects of highfat, sugary "comfort foods" push people toward overeating. Researchers have linked weight gain to stress, and according to an American Psychological Association survey, about one-fourth of Americans rate their stress level as 8 or more on a 10-point scale. In the short term, stress can shut down appetite. The nervous system sends messages to the adrenal glands atop the kidneys to pump out the hormone epinephrine (also known as adrenaline).
2. Epinephrine helps trigger the body's fight-or-flight response, a revved-up physiological state that temporarily puts eating on hold. But if stress persists, it's a different story. The adrenal glands release another hormone called cortisol, and cortisol increases appetite and may also ramp up motivation in general, including the motivation to eat. Once a stressful episode is over, cortisol levels should fall, but if the stress doesn't go away — or if a person's stress response gets stuck in the "on" position — cortisol may stay elevated.
3. Stress also seems to affect food preferences. Numerous studies — granted many of them in animals — have shown that physical or emotional distress increases the intake of food high in fat, sugar, or both. High cortisol levels, in combination with high insulin levels, may be responsible. Other research suggests that ghrelin, a "hunger hormone," may have a role.
4. Once ingested, fat- and sugar-filled foods seem to have a feedback effect that dampens stress related responses and emotions. These foods really are "comfort" foods in that they seem to counteract stress — and this may contribute to people's stress-induced craving for those foods. Of course, overeating isn't the only stress-related behavior that can add pounds. Stressed people also lose sleep, exercise less, and drink more alcohol, all ofwhich can contribute to excess weight
5. Some research suggests a gender difference in stress- coping behavior, with women being more likely to turn to food and men to alcohol or smoking. And a Finnish study that included over 5,000 men and women showed that obesity was associated with stress-related eating in women but not in men. Harvard researchers have reported that stress from work and other sorts of problems correlates with weight gain, but only in those who were overweight at the beginning of the study period.
6. One theory is that overweight people have elevated insulin levels, and stress-related weight gain is more likely to occur in the presence of high insulin. How much cortisol people produce in response to stress may also factor into the stress-weight gain equation. In 2007, British researchers designed an ingenious study that showed that people who responded to stress with high cortisol levels in an experimental setting were more likely to snack in response to daily hassles in their regular lives than low- cortisol responders.
7. When stress affects someone's appetite and waistline, the individual can forestall further weight gain by ridding the refrigerator and cupboards of high-fat, sugary foods. Keeping those "comfort foods” handy is just inviting trouble.
8. Meditation. Countless studies show that meditation reduces stress, although much of the research has focused on high blood pressure and heart disease. Meditation may also help people become more mindful offood choices. With practice, a person may be able to pay better attention to the impulse to grab a fat- and sugar-loaded comfort food and inhibitthe impulse.
9. Exercise. While cortisol levels vary depending on the intensity and duration of exercise, overall exercise can blunt some of the negative effects of stress. Some activities, such as yoga and tai chi, have elements of both exercise and meditation.
10. Social support. Friends, family, and other sources of social support seem to have a buffering effect on the stress that people experience. For example, research suggests that people working in stressful situations, like hospital emergency departments, have better mental health if they have adequate social support. But even people who live and work in situations where the stakes aren't as high need help from time to time from friends and family.
“One theory is that overweight people have elevated insulin levels, and stress-related weight gain is more likely to occur in the presence of high insulin”.
Which interrogative sentence is in the correct form for the bold part of the text above?
Faça seu login GRÁTIS
Minhas Estatísticas Completas
Estude o conteúdo com a Duda
Estude com a Duda
Selecione um conteúdo para aprender mais: