Questões de Inglês - Grammar
Questão 17 2717959FCM PB 2020/1
TEXTO – New Data on Autism Spectrum Disorder in 4- Year-Old Children.
CDC scientists published a report on the prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among 4-year-old children. This report is based on information from the Early Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network. Early ADDM is a subset of the broader ADDM Network, which has been doing ASD surveillance among 8-year-old children since 2000.
In this report, published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Surveillance Summaries, scientists analyzed information from the health and/or education records of preschool-aged children. Identifying children with ASD early helps families get access to services in their communities. This report provides valuable information on progress made toward early identification of children with ASD, and informs providers, particularly public schools, of upcoming service needs. The data in this report demonstrate a continued need to identify children with ASD sooner and refer them to early intervention.
Seven sites from across the United States were included in this report. These sites participated in Early ADDM for at least one year during surveillance years 2010, 2012, and 2014. However, trends in the prevalence and characteristics of ASD could only be analyzed across three sites: Arizona, Missouri, and New Jersey. This is because not all seven sites participated and had consistent data sources for all three surveillance years.
(Adapted from: www.cdc.gov)
What is the proper Tense of the fragment “has been doing” obtained from the first paragraph of the text.
Questão 17 7143479UNIMONTES 2° Etapa 2020
The parents who don’t want to go back to the office
For Ellen, a 36-year-old mother-of-one living in Westchester County, north of New York City, an article that
appeared online in May 2021 changed everything. That week, one of the most powerful men in the finance industry
told a conference that remote working didn’t work for “those who want to hustle”, and signalled his intent to bring
employees back to the office.
 Ellen, who had spent her entire career working on Wall Street, almost choked on her coffee. “During the previous
18 months, I’d spent every single waking hour of the day doing nothing but hustle,” she explains. She was worried by
what the comments implied for workers in her industry. “I didn’t want to go back to the office. I’d come to love working
from home. I’d proved that it could work, and I didn’t want it to change.”
But it did. In the weeks that followed, a handful of major financial-services companies, including Ellen’s employer,
 called time on allowing employees to choose where to work.
The pandemic, Ellen had rarely seen her three-year-old son during the week. But since Covid-19 hit, she had
become accustomed to having lunch with him and being around for bath and bedtime – which meant readjusting to
office working was “devastating”. “Through all the pain of the pandemic, the one huge upside was that I’d had a
chance to really bond with him,” she says of her son. “I was working, and we have a nanny, but I was at home and the
 opportunity to hang out with him between Zoom meetings and calls was priceless.”
For years, parents have been calling for more autonomy to decide where and when they work, and to construct
their working week around opportunities to care for their children. In March 2020, the pandemic granted those
requests for many, as people were sent home to do their jobs. But now, amid signs the pandemic may be coming
under control, and as a cautious transition back to pre-pandemic habits gathers pace, many employers are asking
 employees are to come back into the office full time.
Generally, workers are split on how they feel about going back in person. Some applaud the social advantages of
being back in the office, while others are recoiling at the prospect. But parents are fighting back particularly hard,
especially those who work long hours.
 According to a May 2020 survey by PwC, parents of children under the age of 18 were more reluctant to return to
the workplace than non-parents, and of all respondents who said they were hesitant to go back, more than a fifth cited
their responsibilities as a parent or caregiver. Additional PwC research in January 2021 showed that more than half of
employees would prefer to be remote at least three days a week once pandemic concerns subside.
Source: https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20211007-the-parents-who-dont-want-to-go-back-to-the-office. Accessed on: October 10, 2021. Adapted.
In the part “For years, parents have been calling for more autonomy to decide where and when they work, and to construct their working week around opportunities to care for their children.
In March 2020, the pandemic granted those requests for many, as people were sent home to do their jobs.” (lines 16-18), we can find the following verb tenses:
Questão 57 1362002FACERES 2019/2
Use the comic strip bellow to answer question:
According to the comic strip, the verb tense used in the stretch “Why are you walking around with a drone flying six inches above your head?” is:
Questão 3 153306UEG 2016/1
Migrant or Refugee? There Is a Difference, With Legal Implications
In the first half of this year alone, at least 137,000 men, women and children crossed the Mediterranean Sea to reach the shores of Europe, according to the United Nations. Thousands are traveling across the Balkans now. However, are they refugee or migrants? Does it make any difference? In search for these answers, let’s read the interview.
Q. Does it matter what you call them?
A. Yes. The terms “migrant” and “refugee” are sometimes used interchangeably, but there is a crucial legal difference between the two.
Q. Who is a refugee?
A. Briefly, a refugee is a person who has fled his or her country to escape war or persecution, and can prove it.
Q. What does the distinction mean for European countries?
A. Refugees are entitled to basic protections under the 1951 convention and other international agreements. Once in Europe, refugees can apply for political asylum or another protected status, sometimes temporary. By law, refugees cannot be sent back to countries where their lives would be in danger. “One of the most fundamental principles laid down in international law is that refugees should not be expelled or returned to situations where their life and freedom would be under threat,” the refugee agency said in a statement on Thursday
Q. Who is a migrant?
A. Anyone moving from one country to another is considered a migrant unless he or she is specifically fleeing war or persecution. Migrants may be fleeing dire poverty, or may be well-off and merely seeking better opportunities, or may be migrating to join relatives who have gone before them. There is an emerging debate about whether migrants fleeing their homes because of the effects of climate change – the desertification of the Sahel region, for example, or the sinking of coastal islands in Bangladesh – ought to be reclassified as refugees.
Q. Are migrants treated differently from refugees?
A. Countries are free to deport migrants who arrive without legal papers, which they cannot do with refugees under the 1951 convention. So it is not surprising that many politicians in Europe prefer to refer to everyone fleeing to the continent as migrants.
Disponível em: <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/28/world/migrants-refugees-europe-syria.html?_r=0>. Acesso em: 15 set. 2015.
Considerando os aspectos estruturais do texto, tem-se o seguinte:
Questão 96 229478UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2012
T E X T
Language is forever changing – and forms such as tweets and text messages are no less valid than any textbook version, says the linguist David Crystal, whose latest book encourages children to engage with the possibilities of their lingua franca.
Were the English language ever to need an official guardian, Professor David Crystal certainly looks the part. But the professor would, I suspect, quickly shrug off such a custodial title – not out of modesty, but principle. Though many endangered languages need their champions, he would say, English does not require a guardian; it is vibrant and evolving and can fend for itself.
Crystal’s A Little Book of Language is the latest work of a prolific career. He already has more than 100 books to his name; some are academic but many are for the general inquisitive reader, including By Hook or by Crook: A Journey in Search of English and Shakespeare's Words, which was co-authored by his son, Ben.
For the Crystals, linguistics is clearly a family affair. In the jaunty early chapters of A Little Book of Language, Crystal notes how, when his four children were young, he would study them."We're talking the 1960s, when the study of linguistics had hardly begun – people did not know, in a scientific way, how you developed language," he recalls. "Several of us linguists at that time would record our own kids, just to get some data. There was some literature on it then, but no day-by-day, blow-by-blow examples. I recorded all my children over the years in some shape or form. It's what linguists do. You don't talk to a linguist without having what you say taken down and used in evidence against you at some point in time."
Something must have rubbed off. Though his elder two children, Steven and Sue, eschewed academia, his daughter Lucy took up copywriting and his son Ben, an actor, is now following his father. "His book Shakespeare on Toast was a runaway hit – I wish I'd written it!" says Crystal, before rapidly, and self-effacingly, adding: "But I couldn't have – because it was so cool and modern and so street in its approach to Shakespeare. He has examples of hip-hop Shakespearians and I would never have dared put any of that stuff into one of my books."
A Little Book of Language is a simple history of all language, taking in phonetics, development, social uses, the internet, endangered languages and a touch of literature.
This all sounds very innocent, but books for children can be a contentious issue. Language, as much as history, is part of a national identity and cannot escape contemporary debates. And since Crystal began his academic career in the early 1960s, there have been dramatic shifts in how the English language is taught. "The ethos of 50 years ago was that there was one kind of English that was right and everything else was wrong; one kind of access that was right and everything else was inferior," he says. "Then nobody touched language for two generations. When it gradually came back in, we didn't want to go back to what we did in the 1950s. There's a new kind of ethos now."
What has replaced it is something far more fluid – descriptive rather than prescriptive, as the terminology goes. In schools, appropriateness has replaced the principle of correctness. "Now, one looks at all varieties of language and asks why they are used, says Crystal. "We are rearing a generation of kids who are more equitable and more understanding about the existence of language variety and why it is there."
This doesn't sit easy with the traditionalists, of whom there are still many. His clearest example is the belief that text messaging is destroying children's ability to spell. "It's all nonsense, but people believe it."
He addressed this in his book Txtng: the Gr8 Db8, published three years ago, in which he found that "txt speak" accounted for barely 10 per cent of the contents of the messages exchanged, and noted that abbreviations have always been part of the English language. Having solved that argument with some decent data, he tells me that he's now moving on to Twitter.
"On Twitter [which limits each written entry to 140 characters], you don't get the range of texting abbreviations you get in text messaging. It's a more sophisticated kind of communicative medium. You get semantic threads running through it. When you start counting thousands and thousands of messages, you suddenly realise that on the whole it's a new art form in the making."
The breadth of the internet means that language is morphing not just on grocers' signs and in school playgrounds, but on a far more fundamental level.
"All these different genres – instant messaging, blogging, chatrooms, virtual worlds – have evolved different sets of communicative strategies, which means that you can look at the language and say, 'That must be an example of a chatroom, that must be an example of a tweet,' and you can predict it."
Becoming involved in bigger arguments seems to be an occupational hazard for a linguist. Whether it be education, politics or neuroscience, we all have a vested interest in the implications of language. Our conversation turns to the recent news of a man who had been lying in a vegetative state for seven years before doctors managed to establish basic communication by scanning his brainwaves. "We are moving fast in a direction where you will be able to see what people are saying," says Crystal, optimistically. "We've got to the stage where you can see the complexity of language processing. We're not at the stage yet of being able to see clearly individual sentence patterns and words, but it's not long off."
Surely this has huge implications, not least for personal liberties? "It is the case that virtually every language issue resolves into a social or political or psychological issue," Crystal reminds me. "Language has no independent existence apart from the people who use it. It is not an end in itself; it is a means to an end of understanding who you are and what society is like. At which point, you know that a linguist has to bow out and say, 'This is bigger than me.'"
By Joy Lo Dico 14 March 2010 http://www.independent.co.uk
In terms of verb tense, the sentences “…abbreviations have always been part of the English language.” “…the recent news of a man who had been lying in a vegetative state for seven years…” and “…the 1960s, when the study of linguistics had hardly begun…”may be classified respectively as
Questão 97 236785UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2011
All quotes in this question are from Mario Varga Llosa, from his book The Truth of Lies.
The extract “A community without a written literature expresses itself with less precision, with less richness of nuance, and with less clarity than a community whose principal instrument of communication, the word, has been cultivated and perfected by means of literary texts. … A person who does not read, or reads little, or reads only trash, is a person with an impediment: he can speak much but he will say little, because his vocabulary is deficient in the means for self-expression.” contains verbs in the following tenses (irrespective of the sequence)