Questões de Inglês - Vocabulary
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Questão 48 2097410ESPM 2020/1
4 Types of Deceptive Advertising
By Apryl Duncan
Deceptive advertising is officially defined by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) as “practices that have been found misleading or deceptive. Specific cases include false oral or written representations, misleading price claims, sales of hazardous or systematically defective products or services without adequate disclosures, failure to disclose information regarding pyramid sales, use of bait and switch techniques, failure to perform promised services, and failure to meet warranty obligations..
However, it’s important to note that deceptive advertising does not represent the entire industry, and makes up a very small percentage of the ads you will encounter every day. But there are always people out there looking to dupe consumers and make money in any way that they can. Here are some examples of deceptive and unethical advertising practices and scams that you need to look out for.
In this example, the advertising is not fully disclosing the true cost of the item. You may see an ad for a computer or tablet that says “Only $99!” and you can’t wait to go into the store and buy it or order it online. However, suddenly you are hit with a whole bunch of charges that you were not expecting. In some cases, shipping fees will be extortionate, often costing more than the product itself. Or, you may have to pay handling fees that are excessive.
Often, hidden fees can be spotted by the asterisk (*) that accompanies the incredible deal. Guaranteed, there will be a big difference between “Only $99!” and “Only $99!*” That asterisk basically says “hey, this is not the final price, you will have to jump through major hoops or fork over a lot more cash.” So, if you see an asterisk, read the small print carefully. Whether it’s a small item, a car, or even a home, hidden fees are a deceptive way of luring you in. By the time you realize there’s more to pay, it can be too late.
Bait and Switch
In short, bait and switch is when the advertisement entices you with a product, but makes a significant switch when you go to purchase it.
For instance, suddenly the laptop you wanted is not in stock, but there is a different one that is lower spec and costs twice as much. Chances are that the original laptop was never in stock, or at least, not for the price advertised.
Another example would be advertising a car at the base price, but with all of the top-of-the-line features included in the ad. When you get to the dealership, you have to pay much more to get the car actually shown in the ad. Sometimes, an offer can feel like bait and switch but it’s not. If you want that laptop and it is sold out, but you are offered a similar laptop with a very similar spec, at an almost identical price, that’s perfectly fine. You just missed out on the original deal.
Misleading claims use tricky language to make the consumer believe they are getting one thing when they are in fact getting less (or paying more). A British TV show called The Real Hustle had a great example of this in action. The presenters, who know the ins and outs of so many con games, set up stalls to sell seemingly awesome products at cheap prices.
At no time do the hustlers break the law by making claims that are untrue, but the verbiage leads people to believe they are buying something way better than they’re actually getting. One of the cruelest was advertising a DIY model plane for a price that seemed like a steal. Things like “easy to assemble” and “it really flies” were on the box. But inside... it was just a blank sheet of paper, with a set of instructions on how to make a paper plane. Did they break the law? No. Did they deceive? Yes.
Ambiguous or “Best Case Scenario” Photography
Another way of cheating people is to take photographs of the product being sold, but in a way that makes them seem way better than they are. Shady hotels have often used this technique to make the rooms look bigger, by setting up the camera in the corner of the room and using a fisheye lens.
Food photography can suffer from the “best case scenario” photography. If you have ever ordered a burger from a fast food place, you will know this well. The burger on the menu is perfect. It’s thick, juicy, 4 inches high, and looks incredible. But the burger you receive, while it may have the same ingredients, is a sad interpretation of that image. The bun is flat, the burger is a mess, ketchup and mustard are pouring out of the sides.
This is something we accept as consumers because we know the burger in the photograph was assembled by expert designers and food artists, over the course of many hours, whereas the poor kitchen hand has to throw your burger together in a few seconds to meet your time demands. But, don’t take that to mean you can never complain about this kind of photography. If you buy something that is clearly of poorer quality than the item shown in the picture, you can demand a refund.
(Adapted from www.thebalancecareers.com, February 02, 2019)
The phrasal verbs make up, fork over, lure (someone) in, miss out and set up,all boldfaced in the text, mean, respectively:
Questão 44 2249558FACASPER 2020
1. Once upon a time there ______________ a king called Arthur.
2. I ___________ to visit my cousins to enjoy ________ hospitality.
3. Something ________ to be done about this pathetic situation.
Assinale a opção que contém a sequência de palavras que preenche corretamente as lacunas das três frases 1, 2 e 3, nessa ordem.
Questão 2 4594193UEG 2019/2
Leia o texto e responda à questão.
This is how UN scientists are preparing for the end of capitalism
Capitalism as we know it is over. So suggests a new report commissioned by a group of scientists appointed by the UN secretary general. The main reason? We’re transitioning rapidly to a radically different global economy, due to our increasingly unsustainable exploitation of the planet’s environmental resources and the shift to less efficient energy sources.
Climate change and species extinctions are accelerating even as societies are experiencing rising inequality, unemployment, slow economic growth, rising debt levels, and impotent governments. Contrary to the way policymakers usually think about these problems these are not really separate crises at all.
These crises are part of the same fundamental transition. The new era is characterized by inefficient fossil fuel production and escalating costs of climate change. Conventional capitalist economic thinking can no longer explain, predict or solve the workings of the global economy in this new age.
Those are the implications of a new background paper prepared by a team of Finnish biophysicists who were asked to provide research that would feed into the drafting of the UN Global Sustainable Development Report (GSDR), which will be released in 2019.
For the “first time in human history”, the paper says, capitalist economies are “shifting to energy sources that are less energy efficient.” Producing usable energy (“exergy”) to keep powering “both basic and non-basic human activities” in industrial civilisation “will require more, not less, effort”.
At the same time, our hunger for energy is driving what the paper refers to as “sink costs.” The greater our energy and material use, the more waste we generate, and so the greater the environmental costs. Though they can be ignored for a while, eventually those environmental costs translate directly into economic costs as it becomes more and more difficult to ignore their impacts on our societies.
Overall, the amount of energy we can extract, compared to the energy we are using to extract it, is decreasing across the spectrum – unconventional oils, nuclear and renewables return less energy in generation than conventional oils, whose production has peaked – and societies need to abandon fossil fuels because of their impact on the climate.
Whether or not this system still comprises a form of capitalism is ultimately a semantic question. It depends on how you define capitalism.
Economic activity is driven by meaning – maintaining equal possibilities for the good life while lowering emissions dramatically – rather than profit, and the meaning is politically, collectively constructed. Well, this is the best conceivable case in terms of modern state and market institutions. It can’t happen without considerable reframing of economic-political thinking, in short words: rethinking capitalism as it is nowadays.
Disponível em: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/long_reads/capitalism-un-scientists-preparing-end-fossil-fuels-warning-demise-a8523856.html. Acesso em: 12 mar. 2019. (Adaptado).
Considerando os aspectos semânticos presentes no texto, verifica-se que a construção
Questão 20 106710UNEMAT 2016/1
The Simpsons is an American sitcom that
shows middle class lifestyle in cartoon form.
The half-hour episodes take place in and
around the fictional town of Springfield and
make fun out of American culture and society.
Since the show started in 1989 the Simpsons
have been broadcast over 500 times. This
makes it the longest running sitcom in
American television history. In 2007 a fulllength
movie, The Simpsons Movie, made
over half a billion dollars. The Simpsons has
won many prizes, including the Emmy
Awards. In the year 2000, Time magazine
named it the best television series of
the century and the cartoon characters of The
Simpsons received their own star on
Hollywood’s Walk of Fame. The Simpson
family consists of 5 main characters. Homer is
the rather clumsy, beer-drinking father. He
works at a nuclear power plant in Springfield
and is married to Marge Simpson, a typical
American middle class housewife. The couple
has three children. Bart is a ten-year old
who constantly gets into trouble. Lisa is a
highly intelligent eight-year old who has
become a vegetarian and a Buddhist. Maggie,
the family’s baby, is often shown with
a pacifier. The Simpsons have two pets, a dog
named Santa’s Little Helper and Snowball, a
cat. Even though the
series focuses around animated characters,
many human celebrities have starred on The
Simpsons in the past, for example, Bill
Concurso Vestibular Específico – 2016/1 Página 8
Clinton, Tony Blair, Tom Jones or Mel Gibson.
(Disponível em: http://www.english-online.at. Acesso em 22/10/2014)
A expressão “Hollywood’s Walk of Fame” (l. 17) significa:
Questão 11 309658UFVJM 2016/2
About the Program
 The Brazil Scientific Mobility Program provides scholarships to undergraduate and graduate students from
Brazil for study at colleges and universities in the United States. Scholarships are awarded to students in the
Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields. After completion of an academic year
including a summer internship, students return to Brazil to complete their degrees.
 This initiative, administered by IIE, is part of the Brazilian government's larger effort to grant 100,000 scholarships
to the best students from Brazil for study abroad at the world’s top universities. The program provides
an exchange experience at a U.S. college or university to a diverse group of emerging Brazilian student leaders,
widening the academic and research exchange between the U.S. and Brazil. This initiative is the result of
joint efforts from two sponsoring organizations, CAPES and CNPq.
 CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior is an organization within the Brazilian
Ministry of Education. It is primarily concerned with the following activities: the evaluation of programs at
Brazilian institutions of higher learning; and the awarding of grants and scholarships related to education.
CNPq - Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico is an organization within the Brazilian
Ministry of Science and Technology. It is primarily concerned with the advancement of scientific research
 and technology.
CAPES/CNPq program goals are:
1.To promote scientific research;
2.To invest in educational resources, allocated both within Brazil, and internationally;
3.To increase international cooperation within science and technology;
[20 ] 4.To initiate and engage students in global dialogue.
Colleges and universities interested in hosting undergraduate grantees should contact the Brazil Scientific
- Leam more by visiting the CAPES/cnpq Brazil Scientific Mobility Program website.
Fonte: http://www.iie.org/Programs/Brazil-Scientific-Mobility/About#.V0NWDeRTKYh Acesso: 13/06/2016
A palavra “scholarship” (linha 1) pode ser traduzida como
Questão 37 142220UPE 2º Fase / 1º Dia SSA 2015
The next time the clerk at your favorite grocery store asks whether you prefer “paper or plastic” for your purchases, consider giving the truly eco-friendly response and saying, “neither.”
Plastic bags end up as litter that fouls the landscape, and kill thousands of marine mammals every year that mistake the floating bags for food. Plastic bags that get buried in landfills may take up to 1,000 years to break down, and in the process they separate into smaller and smaller toxic particles that contaminate soil and water. Furthermore, the production of plastic bags consume millions of gallons of oil that could be used for fuel and heating.
Paper bags, which many people consider a better alternative to plastic bags, carry their own set of environmental problems. For example, according to the American Forest and Paper Association, in 1999 the U.S. alone used 10 billion paper grocery bags, which adds up to a lot of trees.
But if you decline paper and plastic bags, then how do you get your groceries home? The answer, according to many environmentalists, is high-quality reusable shopping bags made of materials that don’t harm the environment during production and don’t need to be discarded after each use.
Experts estimate that 500 billion to 1 trillion plastic bags are consumed and discarded annually worldwide — more than a million per minute.
Disponível em: http://environment.about.com/od/recycling/a/reusablebags.htm. Adaptado.
Na frase “Plastic bags that get buried in landfills may take up to 1,000 years to break down,” o verbo em destaque significa
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