Questões de Inglês - Vocabulary
Questão 26 104812UnB 1° Dia 2009/2
 In the minds of many, the words Brazil and culture
conjure up images of beaches, footballers and dancers in
vivid carnival costumes. Filmmaking and cinema, on the
 other hand, haven’t always figured amongst Brazil’s cultural
Repressed and censored by a military dictatorship
 throughout much of the 1970s and 1980s, Brazilian
filmmakers struggled to make an impact on audiences abroad.
Shortly after the country’s return to democracy, the Ministry
 of Culture was closed and the state-supported film industry
crumbled almost overnight. The consequent lack of funding
caused Brazilian cinema to reach a low point in the early
 1990s. Today, less than two decades after the collapse of the
industry, Brazilian cinema is enjoying a renaissance, wowing
audiences and critics alike.
 So, why all the excitement over Brazilian cinema now?
Since the start of 2008 Brazilian films have gone from
strength to strength on the festival circuit.
 In February 2008, director Jose Padilha’s controversial
drama about police violence and corruption, Elite Squad, took
Berlin Film Festival’s top award, the Golden Bear.
 Another triumph followed at Cannes Film Festival
in April. Sandra Corvelloni won the best actress award for
her role in Walter Salles’ Linha de Passe. She plays a
 heavily pregnant, chain-smoking mother of four boys who
are all in their own ways attempting to transcend their
 Salles’ film was also nominated for the prestigious
Palme d’Or, as was Blindness, the latest offering from
fellow Brazilian and director of City of God, Fernando Meirelles.
 Brazilian films are all about favelas and violence, then?
Indeed, one of the most celebrated Brazilian releases of the
past years, 2003’s City of God, as well as this year’s Elite
 Squad, feature ultra-violent narratives set mainly in slums,
or favelas, as they are known in Brazil. Both of these films,
incidentally, were scripted by screenwriter Braulio Mantovani.
 Both films were widely acclaimed for their honesty and
gripping storytelling, but condemned by certain critics for
excessive depictions of violence.
 At the time of its release, City of God — which has
inspired a whole genre of imitators with its fast-paced editing
and bright colors — was accused of glamorizing cruelty.
 Similarly, Elite Squad has been said to promote
fascism, as it depicts the often-brutal methods employed by
Brazil’s special police force in the ongoing battle with drug
 gangs in the favelas. Variety magazine even dubbed
Padilha’s oeuvre “a recruitment film for fascist thugs”, with
Rambo style heroes.
 But Padilha defends the film’s violent tone, insisting
that it was necessary in order to drive home its message.
“The bottom line is we are trying to say that the whole
 violence that goes on in Rio is mainly caused by ourselves
and we can possibly undo that”, he told CNN.
Other Brazilian directors are taking a less bloody
 approach in telling the stories, of the working classes. Lucia
Murat’s Mare, Nossa História de Amor, for example, is a
musical adaptation of Romeo and Juliet set in one of Rio’s
 hillside shantytowns — a novelty in Brazilian cinema.
In the text,
“thugs” (l.47) is the same as criminals.
Questão 78 247793UNITINS 2018
Observe o contexto semântico das palavras a seguir, inseridas no texto, e assinale sua tradução, na ordem em que se apresentam.
Questão 10 363384UEA - Geral 2018
Brazil stops demarcating land for indigenous people: ex-government agency official says
Home to the world’s largest tropical forest, Brazil has lost about one fifth of the Amazon rainforest in the last 50 years, according to the World Wildlife Fund. Research by the U.S.-based World Resources Institute shows that deforestation rates on land formally owned by indigenous peoples are about 2.5 times lower than other areas since they are more likely to conserve the forest than other users.
But politicians representing rural voters1 oppose demarcating new territories for indigenous groups, saying the land ought to be used for farming or cattle ranching to boost economic growth in the recession-hit country. Marcio Santilli, former FUNAI president, said rural politicians were proposing new steps to the demarcation process, which would make it “virtually endless”. He also said they were also proposing that Congress, rather than FUNAI or the Justice Ministry, make decisions on which lands are demarcated to indigenous groups.
(Chris Arsenault. www.reuters.com, 11.01.2017. Adaptado.)
1 Politicians representing rural voters: bancada ruralista no Congresso Nacional.
No trecho do primeiro parágrafo “they are more likely to conserve the forest”, a expressão em destaque tem sentido equivalente, em português, a
Questão 20 107731ACAFE Medicina 2015/1
Brazil cotton deal perpetuates an unhealthy status quo of subsidies
Published by The Washington Post (The text below has been slightly modified to better suit the exam)
1. When is a victory for the United States not a victory
for the American taxpayer? When it’s an international
agreement like the one the Obama administration has
just reached to settle a long-running dispute with
Brazil over cotton subsidies. The roots of that dispute
lie in this country’s history of showering federal funds
on crop producers, including cotton growers. That
particular business received $32.9 billion from
Washington between 1995 and 2012, according to
the Environmental Working Group, largely through
programs that had the effect of rewarding farmers for
increasing production. The extra supply dampened
prices on the world market, so, in 2002, Brazil
complained to the World Trade Organization, which
ruled that US cotton subsidies were indeed
“trade-distorting” and authorized Brazil to retaliate
against US exports. The United States avoided
sanctions — not by reforming its programs but by
agreeing in 2010 to pay Brazil’s cotton farmers
$147.3 million per year.
2. In short, the US government bought off Brazil’s
cotton farmers so that it could keep on buying off its
own. Under the new settlement, announced
Wednesday, Brazil agreed to drop its case at the
WTO and to forgo any new ones during the five-year
term of the farm bill Congress enacted last year. In
return, the United States agreed to trim the modest
US cotton export credit subsidy program and, most
important, to pay Brazil one last dollop of taxpayer
cash, in the amount of $300 million.
3. This is good news to the extent that it fortifies
US-Brazil relations on the eve of a new presidential
term in that country and that it spares US exporters
from the threat of Brazilian retaliation, which could
have reached a total of $829 million per year. Yet, in
essence, the new deal perpetuates the unhealthy
status quo whereby the United States pays Brazil
____ the right ____ continue propping _____ a
domestic cotton industry that can ____ should learn
to compete ____ its own.
What does buy off mean as used in the text?
Questão 24 94987UnB 1° Dia 2013/1
 Mexico City once had the world’s worst air, with skies
so poisonous that birds dropped dead in flight. Today, efforts
to clean the smog are showing visible progress, revealing
 stunning views of snow-capped volcanoes — and offering a
model for the developing world. International experts are
praising the country’s progress. Many say its determined efforts
 to control auto emissions and other environmental effects of
rapid urbanization offer practical lessons to cities in China,
India and other fast-growing countries. Mexican officials have
 attacked the root causes of pollution that plagues many large
urban centers with spiraling growth. They plan to further
reduce vehicle emissions, which are the city’s greatest source
 of pollution. Pemex, the state oil monopoly, plans to build a
US$9.3 billion plant to produce low-sulfur fuel. Mexico City
Mayor Marcelo Ebrard is expanding the low-emissions
 Metrobus system, which has eliminated 80,000 tons of carbon
monoxide annually since 2005. Officials plan to add hybrid
buses. A suburban train system is to replace hundreds of
 thousands of vehicles.
The potential payoff for such efforts is now in sight:
Mexico City does not even rank among the top 10 polluted
 cities worldwide. Mexico City appears to have cut most of its
pollutants at least by half, while recent studies show a number
of cities in China and India recording higher levels of the most
 serious pollutants. In 1992, the United Nations declared
Mexico City the most polluted on the planet. High ozone levels
were thought to cause 1,000 deaths and 35,000 hospitalizations
 a year. Mexico was forced to act. It replaced the city’s sootbelching
old cars, removed lead from gasoline, embraced
natural gas, expanded public transportation, and relocated
 refineries and factories. Change was gradual, but the pace has
quickened in recent years. The presence of lead in the air has
dropped by 90 percent since 1990. Suspended particles –
 pieces of dust, soot or chemicals that lodge in lungs and cause
asthma, emphysema or cancer – have been cut by 70 percent.
Carbon monoxide and other pollutants also have been
 drastically reduced.
Anne-Marie O’Connor. Mexico City drastically reduced air pollutants since the 1990s. In: The Washington Post. Internet: <www.washingtonpost.com>.
Judge the item.
The words “poisonous” (l.2), “smog” (l.3), “low-sulfur fuel” (l.14) and “soot” (l.34) convey the idea of “pollutant”.
Questão 62 83319UFRGS 1° Dia FIS - LIT- ENG 2015
 Orientalism means several interdependent
things. The most readily accepted designation
for Orientalism is an academic one. Anyone
who teaches, writes about, or researches the
 Orient, either in its specific or its general
aspects, is an Orientalist, and what he or she
does is Orientalism.
Related to this academic tradition is a
more general meaning for Orientalism as a
 style of thought based ........ a distinction
made between ‘the Orient’ and ‘the Occident.’
Thus a very large mass of writers and thinkers
have accepted the basic distinction between
East and West as the starting point for
 elaborate theories, epics, novels, social
descriptions, and political accounts concerning
the Orient, its people, customs, ‘mind,’
destiny, and so on.
The interchange between the academic
 and the more or less imaginative meanings of
Orientalism is a constant one, and since the
late 18th century there has been a
considerable traffic between the two. Here I
come to the third meaning of Orientalism,
 which is something more historically and
materially defined than either of the other
two. Orientalism can be discussed and
analyzed as the corporate institution for
dealing with the Orient—dealing with it by
 making statements about it, authorizing views
of it, describing it, by teaching it, settling it: in
short, Orientalism as a Western discourse for
dominating, restructuring, and having
authority ........ the Orient.
 The Orient is not an inert fact of nature. It
is not merely there, just as the Occident itself
is not just there either. As both geographical
and cultural entities such regions as ‘Orient’
and ‘Occident’ are man-made. Therefore as
 much as the West itself, the Orient is an idea
that has a history and a tradition of thought,
imagery, and vocabulary that have given it
reality and presence in and for the West. The
two geographical entities thus support and to
 an extent reflect each other. It would be
wrong to conclude that the Orient is
essentially an idea, or a creation with no
corresponding reality. There are cultures and
nations whose location is in the East, and
 their lives, histories, and customs have a
brute reality obviously greater than anything
that could be said about them in the West.
But the phenomenon of Orientalism as
studied here deals principally, not with a
 correspondence between Orientalism and
Orient, but with the internal consistency of
Orientalism and its ideas about the Orient
........ or beyond any correspondence, or lack
thereof, with a ‘real’ Orient.
Adaptado de: SAID, Edward. Orientalism. In: Ashcroft, Bill et al. (ed.) The Postcolonial Studies Reader . London/ New York: Routledge, 1995. p. 87-91.
Assinale o substantivo formado pelo mesmo processo de formação de Orientalism.