Questões de Inglês - Reading/Writing
Questão 75 1037893EsPCEx 2° Dia 2011
Leia o trecho abaixo e responda à questão.
Brazilian Forces Claim Victory in Gang Haven
RIO DE JANEIRO - In a quick and decisive military operation, Brazilian security forces took control of this city’s most notorious slum on Sunday, celebrating victory over drug gangs after a weeklong battle.
In the early afternoon, the military police raised the flags of Brazil and Rio de Janeiro atop a building on the highest hill in the Alemão shantytown complex, providing a rare moment of happiness and celebration in a decades-long battle to rid this city’s violent slums of drug gangs.
An air of calm and relief swept through the neighborhood, as residents opened their windows and began walking the streets. Dozens of children ran from their houses in shorts and bikinis to jump into a swimming pool that used to belong to a gang leader. Residents congregated around televisions in bars and restaurants, cheering for the police as if they were cheering for their favorite soccer teams. “Now the community is ours,” Jovelino Ferreira, a 60-year-old pastor, said, his eyes filling with tears. “This time it will be different. We have to have faith. Many people who didn’t deserve have suffered here.”
http://www.nytimes.com, consulta em 28/11/2010
In the last paragraph, the author is describing a scene of
Questão 3 6026765UNICAMP 1° Fase 2022
Em 2020, Joaquin Phoenix ganhou o Oscar de melhor ator por sua interpretação no filme “Coringa”, de 2019. Apresenta-se, a seguir, um trecho de seu discurso na ocasião.
“I think whether we’re talking about gender inequality or racism or queer rights or indigenous rights or animal rights, we’re talking about the fight against injustice. We’re talking about the fight against the belief that one nation, one people, one race, one gender, or one species has the right to dominate, control, and use and exploit another with impunity. I think that we’ve become very disconnected from the natural world, and many of us, what we’re guilty of, is an egocentric worldview: the belief that we’re the center of the universe. We go into the natural world, and we plunder it for its resources. We feel entitled to artificially inseminate a cow, and when she gives birth, we steal her baby even though her cries of anguish are unmistakable. Then we take her milk that’s intended for her calf, and we put it in our coffee and our cereal”.
(Adaptado de https://www.rev.com/blog/transcripts/joaquin-phoenix-oscaracceptance-speech-transcript-phoenix-wins-for-joker. Acessado em 02/07/ 2021.)
Em seu discurso, o ator
Questão 29 1735999UEL 2° Fase 2020
Leia o texto a seguir e responda a questão.
After failing to learn a new language on five separate occasions, I taught myself to speak Spanish like a native in just six months by watching movies and TV shows, listening to music, and reading books and comics like Harry Potter and Garfield.
This simple, easy-to-learn technique, that even the most linguistically-challenged can master literally overnight, is used by many of the most respected and skilled polyglots and language teachers in the world, and it’s never really been laid out, explained, and demonstrated in full, point-by-point, step-by-step detail until now.
When characters in a movie or TV show are speaking the dialogue, unless it’s set in a previous period like the 1800s or something, they speak normal, everyday language. So if you wanted to learn Spanish, the type of normal everyday Spanish that native speakers use every day, aka “conversational Spanish”. . . Don’t you think that Spanish-language TV shows, movies, music, and books might be a good source to learn from. . . if only you knew how?
Not only that, but it would be fun, wouldn’t it? Far better than learning the language from some boring, dry textbook or workbook that, even worse, is teaching outdated, formal, “non-conversational” Spanish (look at the dialogue in one sometime: do people actually talk like that? No).
The basic technique is obvious: consume popular Spanish-language media and try to learn what they’re saying by looking up what you don’t understand. Sure. But the issue is twofold:
1) The problems you will inevitably run into (how do I apply what I’ve learned? how do I ensure I’m not misunderstanding the meaning and thereby learning something incorrect? where do I look things up? what if it’s not in the dictionary and Google Translate isn’t cutting it? etc.), and...
2) How do we do things as efficiently as possible? If you’re a beginner you’re going to have to sort out how to do this all on your own, how to solve any problems you might run into on your own, while probably doing many things less effectively and slower than is necessary. I’ve already learned all this stuff the hard way, I’ve made many of the mistakes you would if you went this alone, let me just save you a ton of time, trouble, and possibly money by teaching you what I already know from experience.
Has this basic technique been used for centuries by language students and teachers alike? Yes, there are records dating back to the 18th century of language teachers using popular media in the language they’re teaching to help their students learn it. I’m not claiming to have invented it. What I’ve done here is, after having used and refined the technique myself for several years, distilled it down to a system that’s easy to learn, and which is taught in a format that’s organized, easy to understand, and which takes advantage of all the latest technology, such as all the various resources available on the internet now.
Adaptado de: Andrew Tracey - author of The Telenovela Method www.amazon.com
Para o autor de The Telenovela Method, seu livro
Questão 1 5944475PUC-Rio 2020
How robot carers could be the future for lonely elderly people
Alessandro Di Nuovo
December 6, 2018
The film Robot and Frank imagined a near-future
where robots could do almost everything humans
could. The elderly title character was given a “robot
butler” to help him continue living on his own. The
robot was capable of everything from cooking and
 cleaning to socializing and, it turned out, burglary. This
kind of science fiction may turn out to be remarkably
prescient. As growing numbers of elderly people
require care, researchers believe that robots could be
 one way to address the overwhelming demand. But
even though robots might be able to provide care and,
in some cases, social interaction, many wonder if they
really are the right solution to this uniquely human
 Loneliness and social isolation are already
problems for many seniors and are even linked to
cognitive decline and a higher death rate. With the
population of seniors expected to rise, many worry
that experiences of loneliness will increase, especially
 if access to care is even more limited.
But despite concerns, early studies already show
that social robots – autonomous robots trained to
interact and communicate with humans – really could
address issues of care and social interaction. The
 majority of robotics researchers are largely in favour
of introducing robotic technology on a wider scale
and believe it could reduce loneliness and increase
independence in elderly patients. The Japanese
government even supports introducing robots in
 care homes to solve the country’s ageing population
problem. However, many strongly recommend
carefully balancing the care benefits against the
A class of social robots – mobile robotic
 telepresence systems (MRTs) – have already been
shown to generate positive social interactions with
elderly patients. MRTs are essentially video screens
on wheels raised to head height that can be controlled
remotely using a simple smartphone app. They allow
 relatives and social workers to “visit” elderly people
more often, even if they live in rural or distant places.
Elderly patients don’t need to operate the device,
leaving them free to interact with their social worker
or family. Communication still happens through a
 computer screen, but the robot’s physical presence
mimics face-to-face interaction for elderly people.
Research has shown that people reacted more
positively when talking with someone through an MRT
than through a regular video call or computer avatar –
 especially lonely people. However, MRTs still require
a human operator, which limits the amount of social
interaction seniors can have daily.
To tackle this, developers worldwide have
started creating robot companions programmed with
 advanced artificial intelligence (AI), which can interact
with people on their own. Some examples include
pet-like companion robots, including Aibo and Paro,
which are made by Japanese developers, and MiRo,
which is manufactured in the UK. Other humanoid
 robots, such as the Care-O-bot and Pepper, are able
to provide more complex and comprehensive care.
Though “pet” robots offer limited interaction, they
have proved as effective – or even more so – than
real pets in reducing loneliness for elderly people in
 care homes. Robotic dogs introduced in one UK care
home this year were reported to bring happiness and
comfort to residents.
On the other hand, humanoid robots are already
advanced enough to provide much-needed care to
 elderly people. These robots can pick things up and
move independently, and have a more natural, human
way of interacting, for example, using arm and hand
gestures. More advanced versions have additional
sensors and devices, including touchscreens. Many
 elderly people, finding the touchscreens hard to use,
preferred giving spoken commands to the robot and
reading its response off the screen. But for those with
age-related hearing loss or vision impairment, having
the option to use the touchscreen was indispensable.
 Humanoid robots are still being developed, so their
capabilities are still limited. Moreover, studies of
humanoid robots have mainly focused on evaluating
how well the technology functions without really
considering the social impact. There is also a general
 assumption that it will naturally reduce loneliness.
Though research into social robots is just
beginning, we do know they can provide some solutions
to the challenges mounted by ageing populations, and
could even help reduce social isolation and loneliness.
 At this point, humans are still better in providing care
and social contact to the elderly, but robots might
be able to fill any gaps, especially as technologies
continue to improve. However, before social robots
can be fully integrated into care homes, researchers
 and service providers must address public anxiety
and make it clear that robots are designed to assist
social workers, not replace them. As long as humans
remain in full control to prevent any danger, robots
might well be the future of care.
Available at:https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgetsand-tech/features/robot-carer-elderly-people-lonelinessageing-population-care-homes-a8659801.html. Retrieved on: July 2, 2019. Adapted.
The main purpose of the text is to
Questão 35 1375752CN 1° Dia 2018
Read the text below to do question.
Stephen Hawking, one of the most famous scientists
of the 21st century, died on March 14th, 2018. But his
ideas on gravity, black holes and the Big Bang are the
greatest legacy he left to the world.
Early Life and College
On January 8th, 1942, Stephen Hawking was born to
a successful family in Oxford, England. He was not the
best student at fundamental or high school, but he was
very smart. His dad wanted him to become a medical
doctor, but Stephen really wanted to study math.
Despite his poor grades at school, Stephen aced his
exams for college. He was admitted to Oxford University,
but they didn't have math as a major. So, he decided to
study physics and chemistry instead.
Stephen became a member of a rowing team when he
was in college. After he graduated, he decided to continue
his education and went to graduate school.
Graduate School, Marriage and Health Problems
While in graduate school, he had some health
problems. He began tripping for no reason, and his speech
became hard to understand. His family encouraged him to
go to the doctor. Stephen was diagnosed with a disease
called ALS, or Lou Gelrig's disease, which affects the
brain and spine. He was only twenty one, and the doctors
initially gave him only a few years to live. Luckily, his
condition progressed more slowly than is often the case.
During this time, Stephen had a relationship with a
woman named Jane. He said she and his work were his
inspiration for living. Stephen eamed his Ph.D. degree in
1965. He started to get worse, and eventually became
confined to a wheelchair. Nonetheless, he and dane
married in 1965 and were able to have three children.
He studied how space and time are related, including
scientific studies of black holes in space and how they
work in the universe. He also had a lot of success in his
work as a college professor.
A New Voice
In 1985, Stephen got really sick and doctors were able
to save him, but he was unable to speak. He could only
use his eyebrows to communicate. Eventually, he was able
to use a special voice synthesizer, allowing him to talk by
moving his cheek muscles and using a mouse pad,
Famous Works and Prizes
His most notorious theory is that black holes can emit
radiation; also known as Hawking radiation. He received
numerous awards but never won the Nobel Prize.
Stephen always enjoyed writing books. His best seller,
“A Brief History in Time” made terms like the Big Bang and
black holes easy to understand. Other famous Stephen
Hawking books include: “A Briefer History in Time”, “On the
Shoulders of Giants” and “The Universe in a Nutshell". He
also wrote many books for children along with his daughter
Lucy. His famous books for children include “George's
Cosmic Treasure Hunt” and “George and the Big Bang”.
His last work, submitted only two weeks before his
death, reveals the universe will come to an end when stars
run out of energy. However, his theory suggests that
scientists will be able to find parallel universes using
probes on spaceships.
It can be inferred from the text that Stephen Hawking
Questão 51 212771UEMG 2018
Brazil must legalise drugs – its existing policy just destroys lives
For decades, guns and imprisonment have been the hallmarks of Brazil’s war against the drug trafficking. But the only way to beat the gangs is to stop creating criminals, says a top Brazilian judge
“The war raging in Rocinha, Latin America’s largest favela, has already been lost. Rooted in a dispute between gangs for control of drug trafficking, it has disrupted the daily life of the community in Rio de Janeiro since mid-September. With the sound of shots coming from all sides, schools and shops are constantly forced to close. Recently, a stray bullet killed a Spanish tourist. The war is not the only thing being lost.
For decades, Brazil has had the same drug policy approach. Police, weapons and numerous arrests. It does not take an expert to conclude the obvious: the strategy has failed. Drug trafficking and consumption have only increased. […]
In a case still before the Brazilian supreme court, I voted for decriminalising the possession of marijuana for private consumption. […]
Drugs are an issue that has a profound impact on the criminal justice system, and it is legitimate for the supreme court to participate in the public debate. So here are the reasons for my views.
First, drugs are bad and it is therefore the role of the state and society to discourage consumption, treat dependents and repress trafficking. The rationale behind legalisation is rooted in the belief that it will help in achieving these goals.
Second, the war on drugs has failed. Since the 1970s, under the influence and leadership of the US, the world has tackled this problem with the use of police forces, armies, and armaments. The tragic reality is that 40 years, billions of dollars, hundreds of thousands of prisoners and thousands of deaths later, things are worse. At least in countries like Brazil.
With these points in mind, what would legalisation achieve?
In most countries in North America and Europe, the greatest concern of the authorities is users and the impact drugs have on their lives and on society. These are all important considerations. In Brazil, however, the principal focus must be ending the dominance drug dealers exercise over poor communities. Gangs have become the main political and economic power in thousands of modest neighbourhoods in Brazil. This scenario prevents a family of honest and hard-working people from educating their children away from the influence of criminal factions, who intimidate, co-opt and exercise an unfair advantage over any lawful activity. Crucially, this power of trafficking comes from illegality.
Another benefit of legalisation would be to prevent the mass incarceration of impoverished young people with no criminal record who are arrested for trafficking because they are caught in possession of negligible amounts of marijuana. A third of detainees in Brazil are imprisoned for drug trafficking. Once arrested, young prisoners will have to join one of the factions that control the penitentiaries – and on that day, they become dangerous.
We cannot be certain that a progressive and cautious policy of decriminalisation and legalisation will be successful. What we can affirm is that the existing policy of criminalisation has failed. We must take chances; otherwise, we risk simply accepting a terrible situation. As the Brazilian navigator Amyr Klink said: “The worst shipwreck is not setting off at all.”
Disponível em: <https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/ 2017/nov/15/brazil-must-legalise-drugs-existing-policy- destroys-lives-luis-roberto-barroso-supreme-court-judge>. Acesso em: 14 nov. 2017.
Considering the excerpt “[...] it has disrupted the daily life of the community […]”, and the context it was taken from, mark the correct option regarding the pronoun “it”.