Questões de Inglês - Reading/Writing
Questão 20 8490925UNESP 2023/1
The literary principle according to which the writing and criticism of poetry and drama were to be guided by rules and precedents derived from the best ancient Greek and Roman authors; a codified form of classicism that dominated French literature in the 17th and 18th centuries, with a significant influence on English writing, especially from c.1660 to c.1780. In a more general sense, often employed in contrast with romanticism, the term has also been used to describe the characteristic world-view or value-system of this “Age of Reason”, denoting a preference for rationality, clarity, restraint, order, and decorum, and for general truths rather than particular insights.
(Chris Baldick. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, 2001.)
O termo literário a que o texto se refere é o
Questão 1 6012663UNICAMP 1° Fase 2022
A palavra “cringe” viralizou nas redes sociais no Brasil em 2021. Observe sua definição, em português, apontada pelo “Dicionário Informal” on-line:
Exemplo de uso da palavra cringe:
A cena que presenciamos ontem foi muito cringe.
É cada situação cringe que presenciamos.
Não consigo nem ver, de tão cringe.
Veja, agora, a definição da mesma palavra pelo “Cambridge Dictionary”, também em versão on-line:
to suddenly move away from someone or
something because you are frightened
to feel very embarrassed:
• I cringed at the sight of my dad dancing.
(Disponível em: https://www.dicionarioinformal.com.br/diferenca-entre/crin ge/inglês/; https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/cringe. Acessado em 05/07/2021.)
Com base nessas duas definições, pode-se dizer que, em português, a palavra “cringe”
Questão 4 5945509PUC-GO Medicina 2021/1
Read the definitions of the words ideal, idle and idol:
Idle means something is not in use, empty or doing
Idol is a noun. It means an object that represents a
deity. It is also used to say that you excessively admire
Ideal means something that is in its perfection or
something that is most suitable.
(Available in: https://freevideolectures.com/course/3464/ englsh-grammar/10. Accessed on: January 27th, 2020.)
Complete the sentences below with ideal(s), idle(s) or idol(s):
I - You may use this room, it is _______ for the next six weeks.
II - People normally worship their ________ as gods.
III - Keep calm and answer cordially are the _________ things to do when someone hurts you.
IV - We are justsitting ________ because we don’t have anything to do.
V - For many people, the morning time is ________ to study and learn.
VI - Mom is normally the daughter’s __________.
Check the only alternative that presents all the correct items:
Questão 26 346474UNICENTRO 2015/2
Bribery, the act of promising, giving, receiving, or agreeing to receive money or some other item of value with the corrupt aim of influencing a public official in the discharge of his official duties. When money has been offered or promised in exchange for a corrupt act, the official involved need not actually accomplish that act for the offense of bribery to be complete.
Although bribery originally involved interference with judges, its definition has since been expanded to include actions by all sorts of government officials, from the local to the national level, and to cover all public employees. Special provisions also have been enacted in various jurisdictions to punish the bribing of voters, jurors, witnesses, and other lay participants in official proceedings. Some codes also penalize bribery in designated classes of private or commercial transactions.
(Adapted from: BRIBERY. In: Britannica Online. Enciclopaedia Britannica, 2014. Web, 2014. Source: . Accessed on: Oct. 9th. 2014.)
According to the definition of “bribery” in encyclopedic entry, choose the correct alternative.
Questão 69 1387200EN 2014
Based on the text below, answer question
How New Words Are Created
Below we can find the description of five different processes that have led to the creation of new words in the English language.
Many of the new words added to the ever-growing lexicon of the English language are Just created out of the blue, and often have little or no etymological pedigree. A good example is the word dog, etymologically unrelated to any other known word, which, in the late Middle Ages, suddenly and mysteriously displaced the Old English word hound (or hund) which had served for centuries.
Some words arise simply as shortened forms of longer words (exam, gym, lab, bus, vet, phone and burger are some obvious and well- used examples). Perhaps less obvious is the derivation of words like goodbye (a shortening of God-be-with-you) and hello (a shortened form of the Old English for “whole be thou”).
Like many languages, English allows the formation of words by joining together shorter words (e.g. airport, seashore, fireplace, etc.). The concatenation of words in English may even allow for different meanings depending on the order of combination (e.g. houseboat/boathouse, casebook/bookcase, etc).
The drift of word meanings over time often arises, often but not always due to catachresis. By some estimates, over half of all words adopted into English from Latin have changed their meaning in some way over time, often drastically. For example, smart originally meant sharp, cutting or painful; A more modern example is the changing meaning of gay from merry to homosexual (and, in some circles in more recent vears, to stupid or bad).
New words may arise due to mishearings or misrenderings. According to the “Oxford English Dictionary”, there are at least 350 words in English dictionaries (most of them thankfully quite obscure) that owe their existence purely to typos or other misrenderings (e.g. shamefaced from the original shamefast, penthouse from pentice, sweetheart from sweetard, buttonhole from button-hold, etc).
(Adapted from http://www. thehistoryofenglish.com/issues new.html)
The following headings have been removed from the text and replaced by (I), (II), (III), (IV) and (V).
Choose the alternative which presents them in the correct order.
1 - Change in the Meaning of Existing Words
2 - Creation from Scratch
3 - Fusion or Compounding Existing Words
4 - Truncation or Clipping
5 - Errors
Questão 91 241540UECE 2° Fase 1° Dia 2010
 Apart from being about murder,
suicide, torture, fear and madness, horror
stories are also concerned with ghosts,
vampires, succubi, incubi, poltergeists,
 demonic pacts, diabolic possession and
exorcism, witchcraft, spiritualism, voodoo,
lycanthropy and the macabre, plus such
occult or quasi occult practices as
telekinesis and hylomancy. Some horror
 stories are serio-comic or comic-
grotesque, but none the less alarming or
frightening for that.
From late in the 18th c. until the
present day – in short, for some two
 hundred years – the horror story (which is
perhaps a mode rather than an identifiable
genre) in its many and various forms has
been a diachronic feature of British and
American literature and is of considerable
 importance in literary history, especially in
the evolution of the short story. It is also
important because of its connections with
the Gothic novel and with a multitude of
fiction associated with tales of mystery,
 suspense, terror and the supernatural,
with the ghost story and the thriller and
with numerous stories in the 19th and
20th c. in which crime is a central theme.
The horror story is part of a long
 process by which people have tried to
come to terms with and find adequate
descriptions and symbols for deeply
rooted, primitive and powerful forces,
energies and fears which are related to
 death, afterlife, punishment, darkness,
evil, violence and destruction.
Writers have long been aware of the
magnetic attraction of the horrific and
have seen how to exploit or appeal to
 particular inclinations and appetites. It
was the poets and artists of the late
medieval period who figured out and
expressed some of the innermost fears
and some of the ultimate horrors (real and
 imaginary) of human consciousness. Fear
created horrors enough and the
eschatological order was never far from
people‟s minds. Poets dwelt on and
amplified the ubi sunt motif and artists
 depicted the spectre of death in paint,
through sculpture and by means of
woodcut. The most potent and frightening
image of all was that of hell: the abode of
eternal loss, pain and damnation. There
 were numerous "visions" of hell in
Gradually, imperceptibly, during the
16th c. hell was "moved‟ from its
traditional site in the center of the earth.
 It came to be located in the mind; it was a
part of a state of consciousness. This was
the beginning of the growth of the idea of
a subjective, inner hell, a psychological
hell; a personal and individual source of
 horror and terror, such as the chaos of a
disturbed and tormented mind, the
pandaemonium of psychopathic
conditions, rather than the abode of lux
atra and everlasting pain with its definite
 location in a measurable cosmological
The horror stories of the late 16th
and early 17th c. (like the ghost stories)
are provided for us by the playwrights.
 The Elizabethan and Jacobean tragedians
were deeply interested in evil, crime,
murder, suicide and violence. They were
also very interested in states of extreme
suffering: pain, fear and madness. They
 found new modes, new metaphors and
images, for presenting the horrific and in
doing so they created simulacra of hell.
One might cite perhaps a thousand or
more instances from plays in the period c.
 1580 to c. 1642 in which hell is an all-
purpose, variable and diachronic image of
horror whether as a place of punishment
or as a state of mind and spirit. Horrific
action on stage was commonplace in the
 tragedy and revenge tragedy of the
period. The satiety which Macbeth claimed
to have experienced when he said: “I have
supp‟d full of horrors;/ Direness, familiar
to my slaughterous thoughts, /Cannot
 once start me…” was representative of it.
During the 18th c. (as during the
19th ), in orthodox doctrine taught by
various „churches‟ and sects, hell remained
a place of eternal fire and punishment and
 the abode of the Devil. For the most part
writers of the Romantic period and
thereafter did not re-create it as a
visitable place. However, artists were
drawn to “illustrate” earlier conceptions of
 hell. William Blake did 102 engravings for
Dante‟s Inferno. John Martin illustrated
Paradise Lost and Gustave Doré applied
himself to Dante and Milton. The actual
hells of the 18th and 19th c. were the
 gaols, the madhouses, the slums and
bedlams and those lanes and alleys where
vice, squalor, depravity and unspeakable
misery created a social and moral chaos:
terrestrial counterparts to the horrors of
 Dante‟s Circles.
Gothic influence traveled to America
and affected writers such as Edgar Allan
Poe, whose tales are short, intense,
sensational and have the power to inspire
 horror and terror. He depicts extremes of
fear and insanity and, through the
operations of evil, gives us glimpses of
Poe‟s long-term influence was
 immeasurable (and in the case of some
writers not altogether for their good), and
one can detect it persisting through the
19th c.; in, for example the French
symbolistes (Baudelaire published
 translations of his tales in 1856 and
1857), in such British writers as Rossetti,
Swinburne, Dowson and R. L. Stevenson,
and in such Americans as Ambrose Bierce,
Hart Crane and H.P. Lovecraft.
 Towards the end of the 19th c. a
number of British and American writers
were experimenting with different modes
of horror story, and this was at a time
when there had been a steadily growing
 interest in the occult, in supernatural
agencies, in psychic phenomena, in
psychotherapy, in extreme psychological
states and also in spiritualism.
The enormous increase in science
 fiction since the 1950s has diversified
horror fiction even more than might at
first be supposed. New maps of hell have
been drawn and are being drawn; new
dimensions of the horrific exposed and
 explored; new simulacra and exempla
created. Fear, pain, suffering, guilt and
madness (what has already been touched
on in miscellaneous „hells‟) remain
powerful and emotive elements in horror
 stories. In a chaotic world, which many
see to be on a disaster course, through
the cracks, „the faults in reality‟, we and
our writers catch other vertiginous
glimpses of „chaos and old night‟,
 fissiparating images of death and
From: CUDDON, J. A. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. London: Penguin, 1999.
Among the many writers influenced by Edgar Allan Poe, the text mentions