Questões de Inglês - Reading/Writing
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Questão 66 201253UECE 2018
T E X T
As growth slows in wealthy countries, Western food companies are aggressively expanding in developing nations, contributing to obesity and health problems.
FORTALEZA, Brazil — Children’s squeals rang through the muggy morning air as a woman pushed a gleaming white cart along pitted, trashstrewn streets. She was making deliveries to some of the poorest households in this seaside city, bringing pudding, cookies and other packaged foods to the customers on her sales route.
Celene da Silva, 29, is one of thousands of door-to-door vendors for Nestlé, helping the world’s largest packaged food conglomerate expand its reach into a quarter-million households in Brazil’s farthestflung corners.
As she dropped off variety packs of Chandelle pudding, Kit-Kats and Mucilon infant cereal, there was something striking about her customers: Many were visibly overweight, even small children.
She gestured to a home along her route and shook her head, recalling how its patriarch, a morbidly obese man, died the previous week. “He ate a piece of cake and died in his sleep,” she said.
Mrs. da Silva, who herself weighs more than 200 pounds, recently discovered that she had high blood pressure, a condition she acknowledges is probably tied to her weakness for fried chicken and the Coca-Cola she drinks with every meal, breakfast included.
Nestlé’s direct-sales army in Brazil is part of a broader transformation of the food system that is delivering Western-style processed food and sugary drinks to the most isolated pockets of Latin America, Africa and Asia. As their growth slows in the wealthiest countries, multinational food companies like Nestlé, PepsiCo and General Mills have been aggressively expanding their presence in developing nations, unleashing a marketing juggernaut that is upending traditional diets from Brazil to Ghana to India.
A New York Times examination of corporate records, epidemiological studies and government reports — as well as interviews with scores of nutritionists and health experts around the world — reveals a sea change in the way food is produced, distributed and advertised across much of the globe. The shift, many public health experts say, is contributing to a new epidemic of diabetes and heart disease, chronic illnesses that are fed by soaring rates of obesity in places that struggled with hunger and malnutrition just a generation ago.
The new reality is captured by a single, stark fact: Across the world, more people are now obese than underweight. At the same time, scientists say, the growing availability of high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods is generating a new type of malnutrition, one in which a growing number of people are both overweight and undernourished.
“The prevailing story is that this is the best of all possible worlds — cheap food, widely available. If you don’t think about it too hard, it makes sense,” said Anthony Winson, who studies the political economics of nutrition at the University of Guelph in Ontario. A closer look, however, reveals a much different story, he said. “To put it in stark terms: The diet is killing us.”
Even critics of processed food acknowledge that there are multiple factors in the rise of obesity, including genetics, urbanization, growing incomes and more sedentary lives. Nestlé executives say their products have helped alleviate hunger, provided crucial nutrients, and that the company has squeezed salt, fat and sugar from thousands of items to make them healthier. But Sean Westcott, head of food research and development at Nestlé, conceded obesity has been an unexpected side effect of making inexpensive processed food more widely available.
“We didn’t expect what the impact would be,” he said.
Part of the problem, he added, is a natural tendency for people to overeat as they can afford more food. Nestlé, he said, strives to educate consumers about proper portion size and to make and market foods that balance “pleasure and nutrition.”
There are now more than 700 million obese people worldwide, 108 million of them children, according to research published recently in The New England Journal of Medicine. The prevalence of obesity has doubled in 73 countries since 1980, contributing to four million premature deaths, the study found.
By ANDREW JACOBS and MATT RICHTEL The New York Times SEPT. 16, 2017 https://www.nytimes.com
The text mentions that some multinational food companies have
Questão 27 87906UNCISAL 2° Dia 2015
A new law in Brazil has come into force under which employers can be fined if they fail to register their domestic workers.
It is part of new measures to provide basic protection for some seven million domestic workers long excluded from Brazil's stringent labour laws.
Disponível em: . Acesso em: 8 ago. 2014.
O texto indica que
Questão 26 1373377FUVEST 2020
TEXTO PARA A QUESTÃO
Assigning female genders to digital assistants such as Apple’s Siri and Amazon’s Alexa is helping entrench harmful gender biases, according to a UN agency.
Research released by Unesco claims that the often submissive and flirty responses offered by the systemsto many queries – including outright abusive ones – reinforce ideas of women as subservient.
“Because the speech of most voice assistants is female, it sends a signal that women are obliging, docile and eager‐to‐ please helpers, available at the touch of a button or with a blunt voice command like ‘hey’ or ‘OK’”, the report said.
“The assistant holds no power of agency beyond what the commander asks of it. It honours commands and responds to queries regardless of their tone or hostility. In many communities, this reinforces commonly held gender biases that women are subservient and tolerant of poor treatment.”
The Unesco publication was entitled “I’d Blush if I Could”; a reference to the response Apple’s Siri assistant offers to the phrase: “You’re a slut.” Amazon’s Alexa will respond: “Well, thanks for the feedback.”
The papersaid such firms were “staffed by overwhelmingly male engineering teams” and have built AI (Artificial Intelligence) systems that “cause their feminised digital assistants to greet verbal abuse with catch‐me‐if‐you‐can flirtation”.
Saniye Gülser Corat, Unesco’s director for gender equality, said: “The world needs to pay much closer attention to how, when and whether AI technologies are gendered and, crucially, who is gendering them.”
The Guardian, May, 2019. Adaptado.
Segundo o texto, o título do relatório publicado pela Unesco ‐ “I´d Blush if I Could” ‐, no que diz respeito aos assistentes digitais, indica
Questão 50 1866678UnirG 2019/2
Leia o título da resenha crítica sobre o filme Once Upon a Time in Hollywood para responder à questão
Brad Pitt, Leonardo DiCaprio and Margot Robbie star in Quentin Tarantino’s latest film, which premiered at the Cannes Film Festival – but is it any good?
By Nicholas Barber
Disponível em: http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20190522-cannes-2019-reviewonce-upon-a-time-in hollywood. Acesso em: 22 maio 2019.
O título da resenha indica o elemento que vai conduzir a principal argumentação do texto.
Questão 49 396438URCA 2° Dia 2018/1
You can conclude that the pronoun THOSE (first line of the text) refers to:
Questão 3 1768742ENEM LIBRAS 1° Aplicação - 1° Dia 2017
Develop Good Study Habits Early On
Here are some simple tips to help you improve your study habits:
Have a routine for where and when you study.
Decide in advance what you’ll study, choosing reasonable and specific goals that you can accomplish
Do things that are harder or require more intense thought earlier in the day.
Take breaks so that you stay fresh and don’t waste time by looking at material but not absorbing it.
Make use of “dead” time right before and after class and during breaks between other activities.
Disponível em: www.education.com. Acesso em: 27 jun. 2012.
Desenvolver as próprias estratégias de estudo pode ajudar estudantes a obter melhores resultados.
Com o propósito de auxiliá-los nessa tarefa, o texto lista dicas de hábitos de estudo que compreendem
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