Questões de Inglês - Reading/Writing
Questão 55 8491570UNESP 2023/1
Human beings are relentlessly capable of reflecting on themselves. We might do something out of habit, but then we can begin to reflect on the habit. We can habitually think things, and then reflect on what we are thinking. We can ask ourselves (or sometimes we get asked by other people) whether we know what we are talking about. To answer that we need to reflect on our own positions, our own understanding of what we are saying, our own sources of authority. Cosmologists have to pause from solving mathematical equations with the letter t in them, and ask what is meant, for instance, by the flow of time or the direction of time or the beginning of time. But at that point, whether they recognize it or not, they become philosophers.
(Simon Blackburn. Think: A compelling introduction to philosophy, 1999. Adaptado.)
No texto, o autor explicita a presença da atitude filosófica a partir
Questão 7 6026864UNICAMP 1° Fase 2022
Gaslighting is a form of psychological abuse where a person or group makes someone question their sanity, perception of reality, or memories. People experiencing gaslighting often feel confused, anxious, and unable to trust themselves. The term gaslighting derives from the 1938 play and 1944 film “Gaslight”, in which a husband manipulates his wife into thinking she has a mental illness by dimming their gas-fueled lights and telling her she is hallucinating. While anyone can experience gaslighting, it is especially common in intimate relationships and in social interactions where there is an imbalance of power. A person who is on the receiving end of this behavior is experiencing abuse.
(Disponível em https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/signs-of-gaslig hting. Acessado em 02/06/2021.)
Assinale o depoimento feminino que ilustra a prática discutida no texto.
(Alternativas adaptadas de https://brasil.elpais.com/brasil/2017/09/15/internacio nal/1505472042_655999.html; https://revistamarieclaire.globo.com/Comportame nto/noticia/2019/03; https://emais.estadao.com.br/noticias/comportamento,voca bulario-feminista-conheca-dez-termos-importantes-para-o-movimento,70 002805 322; https://www.justificando.com/2017/11/16/meu-cerebro-minhas-ideias/.)
Questão 20 6264225UNESP 2022/1
Art which is based on images of mass consumer culture. Pop art was initially regarded as a reaction from abstract expressionism because its exponents brought back figural imagery and made use of impersonal handling. It was seen as a descendant of Dada because it debunked the seriousness of the art world and embraced the use or reproduction of commonplace subjects. Comic books, advertisements, packaging, and images from television and the cinema were all part of the iconography of the movement.
(Ian Chilvers e John Glaves-Smith (orgs.). Oxford Dictionary of Modern and Contemporary Art, 2009. Adaptado.)
Uma obra representativa do movimento artístico retratado no texto está reproduzida em:
Questão 5 8077314ENEM 1° Dia 2022
A Teen's View of Social Media
Instagram is made up of all photos and videos. There is the home page that showcases the posts from people you follow, an explore tab which offers posts from accounts all over the world, and your own page, with a notification tab to show who likes and comments on your posts.
It has some downsides though. It is known to make many people feel insecure or down about themselves because the platform showcases the highlights of everyone's lives, while rarely showing the negatives. This can make one feel like their life is not going as well as others, contributing to the growing rates of anxiety or depression in many teens today. There is an underlying desire for acceptance through the number of likes or followers one has.
Disponível em: https “cyborbuliying.org. Acesso em: 29 qui. 2021.
O termo “downsides” introduz a ideia de que o Instagram é responsável por
Questão 24 4396239UNESP Cursos das Áreas de Exatas e Humanidades 2021
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
When will the Amazon hit a tipping point?
Scientists say climate change, deforestation and fires could cause the world’s largest rainforest to dry out. The big question is how soon that might happen. Seen from a monitoring tower above the treetops near Manaus, in the Brazilian Amazon, the rainforest canopy stretches to the horizon as an endless sea of green. It looks like a rich and healthy ecosystem, but appearances are deceiving. This rainforest — which holds 16,000 separate tree species — is slowly drying out.
Over the past century, the average temperature in the forest has risen by 1-1.5 °C. In some parts, the dry season has expanded during the past 50 years, from four months to almost five. Severe droughts have hit three times since 2005. That’s all driving a shift in vegetation. In 2018, a study reported that trees that do best in moist conditions, such as tropical legumes from the genus Inga, are dying. Those adapted to drier climes, such as the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa), are thriving.
At the same time, large parts of the Amazon, the world’s largest rainforest, are being cut down and burnt. Tree clearing has already shrunk the forest by around 15% from its 1970s extent of more than 6 million square kilometres; in Brazil, which contains more than half the forest, more than 19% has disappeared. Last year, deforestation in Brazil spiked by around 30% to almost 10,000 km2, the largest loss in a decade. And in August 2019, videos of wildfires in the Amazon made international headlines. The number of fires that month was the highest for any August since an extreme drought in 2010.
(www.nature.com, 25.02.2020. Adaptado.)
WHAT DIFFERENCE DOES A WARMING OF 1.5 °C MAKE ANYWAY?
O cartum ilustra que o aumento de temperatura, também citado no texto,
Questão 31 5942905FGV-RJ 2021/2
Texto para a pergunta.
Life has never been easy for the Persian Gulf’s migrant workers. Though they are around half of the region’s population and are essential to its economy, the locals give them little respect. Coming from poorer countries such as India, Pakistan, and Nepal, most work long hours for wages [salários] that are high compared with salaries back home but low by any other standard. They care for Kuwaiti children, nurse sick Saudis, and build Dubai’s skyscrapers. When their workday is done, many are crammed into Spartan dormitories by their employers. Whether visiting workers have lived in the Gulf for two months or two decades, they are deemed [considerados, julgados] to be “temporary” and are left out of the social contract. Most citizens treat them as a subservient underclass.
The outbreak [erupção, surto] of Covid-19 has made life even harder for migrants, who probably account for the majority of the recorded infections in the Gulf and are also suffering the most from the resulting economic problems. Many are locked down [confinados rigidamente na quarantena], out of work, and unable to go home because of restrictions on travel. Some struggle to afford food. Governments should take better care of them. This is not only humane, it is also practical. If the Gulf states do not start treating their guests with more compassion, they are likely to find that their outbreaks last longer and that their economies recover more slowly.
So far, the pandemic has revealed more bigotry [intolerância] than benevolence. A Member of Parliament in Kuwait wants to “purify” the country of illegal workers. “Put them in the desert,” says a famous Kuwaiti actress. A viral video in Bahrain featured a man complaining of migrants receiving medical treatment next to citizens – even though half the nurses in Bahrain come from abroad [do exterior]. In hospitals across the region foreigners are on the front line fighting the virus.
Discrimination is bad enough, but the dormitories where migrants live are incubators for Covid-19. With four or more to a room, there is no space for social distancing. At a big labor camp in Qatar one infection quickly became hundreds. Far from the Gulf, Singapore, which treats migrant workers somewhat better, thought it had the virus under control until it broke out [eclodiu] in their dormitories. Now infections are rising fast and the authorities have had to extend restrictions on work and travel.
Neglecting migrants hurts citizens, too. The dormitory outbreaks stand a good chance of spreading to the permanent population, lengthening lockdowns. Xenophobes see this as yet another reason to banish foreigners. But countries such as India, which have their hands full, are not cooperating with efforts to return their unemployed, potentially ailing [doentes] expatriates.
The Gulf states are finally taking steps to impede the virus in migrant areas. Some have launched mass inspections and are testing those migrants with symptoms. Temporary housing has been set up to allow social distancing. Most countries are treating Covid-19 patients, including migrants, for free. Saudi Arabia has also released dozens of migrants held [detidos] for minor immigration offenses [contravenções], so that prisons do not become plague factories [fábricas de pestilência]. The United Arab Emirates is automatically renewing the paperwork for migrant workers so that they don’t find themselves on the wrong side of the law just because they are locked down.
That is all to the good, but more needs to be done. Some migrants are still working – building stadiums for the World Cup in 2022 or facilities for the World Expo next year. Employers should be obliged to guarantee their safety. Many migrants cannot work, though, and states should care for them, too. Gulf countries can afford to pay a portion of their wages during the outbreak. That will not only ensure that they do not go hungry – it will mean that someone is there to turn the lights back on when businesses start to open up again.
Adapted from The Economist, April 25, 2020.
With respect to migrant workers in the Persian Gulf states, the information in the article supports all of the following except