Questões de Inglês - Reading/Writing
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Questão 10 184521ITA 2018
WE RECORDED VCs CONVERSATIONS AND ANALYZED HOW DIFFERENTLY THEY TALK ABOUT FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS
 When venture capitalists (VCs) evaluate investment proposals, the language they use to describe the
entrepreneurs who write them plays an important but often hidden role in shaping who is awarded funding
and why.[…] We were given access to government venture capital decision making meetings in Sweden and
were able to observe the types of language that VCs used over a two-year period. One major thing stuck out:
 The language used to describe male and female entrepreneurs was radically different. And these differences
have very real consequences for those seeking funding — and for society in general.
[…] Worldwide, government venture capital is important for bridging significant financial gaps and
supporting innovation and growth, as VCs can take risks where banks are not allowed to. When uncertainty is
high regarding assessment of product and market potential, for example, the assessment of the
 entrepreneur’s potential becomes highly central in government VCs’ decision making.
In Sweden, about one-third of businesses are owned and run by women, although they are not granted
a corresponding proportion of government funding. In fact, women-owned businesses receive much less —
only 13%–18%, the rest going to male-owned companies.
This brings us back to our research. From 2009 to 2010 we were invited to silently observe
 governmental VC decision-making meetings and, more important, the conversations they had about
entrepreneurs applying for funding. […] We observed closed-room, face-to-face discussions leading final
funding decisions for 125 venture applications. Of these, 99 (79%) were from male entrepreneurs and 26
(21%) were from female entrepreneurs. The group of government venture capitalists observed included
seven individuals: two women and five men. […]
 Aside from a few exceptions, the financiers rhetorically produce stereotypical images of women as
having qualities opposite to those considered important to being an entrepreneur, with VCs questioning their
credibility, trustworthiness, experience, and knowledge.
Conversely, when assessing male entrepreneurs, financiers leaned on stereotypical beliefs about men
that reinforced their entrepreneurial potential. Male entrepreneurs were commonly described as being
 assertive, innovative, competent, experienced, knowledgeable, and having established networks.
We developed male and female entrepreneur personas based on our findings […]. These personas
highlight a few key differences in how the entrepreneurs were perceived depending on their gender. Men
were characterized as having entrepreneurial potential, while the entrepreneurial potential for women was
diminished. Many of the young men and women were described as being young, though youth for men was
 viewed as promising, while young women were considered inexperienced. Men were praised for being
viewed as aggressive or arrogant, while women’s experience and excitement were tempered by discussions
of their emotional shortcomings. Similarly, cautiousness was viewed very differently depending on the gender
of the entrepreneur.
Unsurprisingly, these stereotypes seem to have played a role in who got funding and who didn’t.
 Women entrepreneurs were only awarded, on average, 25% of the applied-for amount, whereas men
received, on average, 52% of what they asked for. Women were also denied financing to a greater extent
than men, with close to 53% of women having their applications dismissed, compared with 38% of men. […]
Such stereotyping will inevitably influence the distribution of financing, but could also have other major
consequences. Because the purpose of government venture capital is to use tax money to stimulate growth
 and value creation for society as a whole, gender bias presents the risk that the money isn’t being invested in
businesses that have the highest potential. This isn’t only damaging for women entrepreneurs; it’s potentially
damaging for society as a whole.
Fonte: Adaptado de Harvard Business Review . Acesso em: 17 mai. 2017.
Marque a opção que lista qualidades expostas no texto que foram colocadas em dúvida em relação às empreendedoras.
Questão 2 163682ENEM 1ª Aplicação - 1° Dia 2017
One of the things that made an incredible impression on me in the fil'm was Frida's comfort in and celebration of her own unique beauty. She didn't try to fit into conventional ideas or images about womanhood or what makes someone or something beautiful. lnstead, she fully inhabited her own unique gifts, not particularly caring what other people thought. She was magnetic and beautiful in her own right. She painted for years, not to be a commercial success or to be discovered, but to express her own inner pain, joy, family, lave and culture. She absolutely and resolutely was who she was. The trueness of her own unique vision and her ability to stand firmly in her own truth was what made her successful in the end.
HUTZLER, L. Disponível em: www.etbscreenwriting.com. Acesso em: 6 maio 2013.
A autora desse comentário sobre o filme Frida mostra-se impressionada com o fato de a pintora
Questão 57 1548797PUC-PR Verão 2014
Read the movie review and answer the following question:
The Smurfs 2
Review: While the initial Smurfs flick was set in New York, this one takes a continental turn and shifts the scene to Paris, where the irrepressible Gargamel needs something called 'Smurf Essence', which he uses as part of his magician's act. So, he sends out one of his Naughties called Vexy to kidnap Smurfette via an inter-dimensional portal he has opened. He believes that Smurfette is a key ingredient in his quest for world domination. The fact that Smurfette is herself feeling a little blue, so to speak, because the whole vil lage has forgotten her birthday (or so she thinks) doesn't help matters.
Choose the correct alternative based on the review:
Questão 24 104486UnB 1° Dia 2009/1
In short, Virginia Woolf suggests that time exists in different forms. It exists in the external world, but also — and perhaps more importantly — in our internal world. Her description of the loud and rushing civilization suggests that we push ahead in the name of progress, without fully appreciating the moment. Through the character of Clarissa, Woolf challenges the usual definition of success. Perhaps we need not leave some magnificent gift behind in the form of a building or a concrete art piece. Instead, maybe it is how we live our lives and our appreciation for the present that are truly more powerful and eternal. The small gifts we offer others, like bringing people together through a party, can touch people differently than a monument.
Woolf’s message about time should be heeded. Our rush to leave a dramatic mark in the world leads to further destruction. Tension abounds in our modern world as we create technology to increase our efficiency. Our civilization tends to see scientific and monumental achievements as the most valid measures of an individual’s success. However, in the process, our communities disintegrate. More and more people complain of feeling alienated. The evidence surrounds us. The internal time that allows us to slow down and be involved with people finds itself dominated by external societal time. Some might find Clarissa Dalloway’s gift to the world to be trivial. However, we need individuals with the ability to pull people together — people with the ability to create community where it no longer exists.
Internet: <prizedwriting.ucdavis.edu> (adapted).
The text conveys the idea that
Woolf believes that external time is more important than internal time.
Questão 34 1122459FGV-SP Administração 2019/1
ANYTHING CAN BE RESCINDED
By Isabel Hull
 The Paris Peace Pact of 1928 is a treaty few remember and which is ridiculed by many of those who do. Otherwise known as the Kellogg-Briand Pact –
after its authors, the US secretary of state, Frank Kellogg, and his French counterpart, Aristide Briand – its signatories agreed specifically to ‘condemn
recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it, as an instrument of national policy in their relations with one another’.
Lacking any means of enforcement, and seemingly swept aside by the Second World War only 11 years later, Kellogg-Briand has been seen as hopelessly
utopian, as evanescent and dated as the Charleston (a popular dance of that period). But Oona Hathaway and Scott Shapiro, in their book The
Internationalists and Their Plan to Outlaw War, argue that it was revolutionary. By outlawing war, it laid the legal foundations for a ‘New World Order’
which still prevails, but which we fail to appreciate.
 The book begins with a bleak description of the ‘Old World Order’, which rested on the right of states, in the absence of a world court, to resort to war
to redress grievances or solve disputes. War was a legal mechanism. Hathaway and Shapiro’s study of more than four hundred declarations of war from
the late 16th century to 1939 reveals that self-defence and the enforcement of treaty, international or succession laws were the reasons cited most often
by states. In addition to permitting frequent armed conflict, the lawful status of war had other consequences for international relations. Since force could
be used to resolve conflicts, the system rewarded the powerful, sanctifying the principle of ‘might is right’. It also legitimated conquest, both as
compensation for injury and as the outcome of a contest of force in which the weaker side lost. It permitted the threat of force (gunboat diplomacy). It
protected the decision makers who waged war and the soldiers who fought it, because both were engaged in a legal activity. Killing in war wasn’t murder.
And, finally, lawful war required absolute impartiality from neutrals (for example, in their trade or commerce with belligerents), since they were not parties
to the dispute. Economic sanctions were therefore illegal. This state of affairs lasted into the 20th century, and Hathaway and Shapiro see the First World
War as its ‘terrible culmination’. Even the League of Nations ‘did not herald’ [anunciar] its end because its covenant still permitted member states to resort
to war over serious, non-judiciable disputes after a three-month cooling-off period.
 Hathaway and Shapiro’s premise is that since states seemed incapable of weaning themselves off [se desacostumar de] warfare, civil society had to
 Among the ‘internationalists’ who helped broker, institutionalize and interpret the Kellogg-Briand Pact, one of the most significant was Hersch
Lauterpacht, the Whewell Professor of International Law at Cambridge University. In the late 1930s, he rigorously and successfully argued that the Kellogg-
Briand Pact had overturned the basic structures of the international order. Neutrals were no longer bound [amarrados, obrigados] to impartiality,
permitting policies that helped victims of aggression. And because it resulted from a criminal act, conquest was now illegal. Individual leaders could be
held responsible for waging [fazer, proseguir] illegal wars (the principle behind the Nuremberg Trials). And treaties extorted by coercion were invalid.
Lauterpacht’s briefs [pareceres] to the US and British governments in the 1940s helped establish these principles, making him ‘the father of the New World
Order’, which since 1945 has been characterized by remarkably few inter-state wars or annexations.
 Hathaway and Shapiro’s point, then, is that ‘for all its problems, the New World Order is better than the Old.’
Adapted from the London Review of Books, 26 April 2018.
In The Internationalists and Their Plan to Outlaw War, authors Oona Hathaway and Scott Shapiro most likely
Questão 39 1534783PUC-PR Inverno - Demais Cursos 2019
Read the text.
Looking for Alaska by John Green
Before. Miles “Pudge” Halter is done with his safe life at home. His whole life has been one big non-event, and his obsession with famous last words has only made him crave “the Great Perhaps” even more (Francois Rabelais, poet). He heads off to the sometimes crazy and anything-but-boring world of Culver Creek Boarding School, and his life becomes the opposite of safe. Because down the hall is Alaska Young. The gorgeous, clever, funny, sexy, self-destructive, screwed up, and utterly fascinating Alaska Young. She is an event unto herself. She pulls Pudge into her world, launches him into the Great Perhaps, and steals his heart. Then ...
After. Nothing is ever the same.
After reading the excerpt, identify its text genre.
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