Questões de Inglês - Reading/Writing
Questão 55 1405353UNIFOR Medicina 2019.1
This happened two or three years ago in Indonesia on a business trip... and I was invited to the Area Manager’s house for dinner, which was lovely. I met his wife and children. The kids were terribly sweet. Especially his son was only ten years old. He was so cute! Anyway, I patted the boy on his head … and I noticed that everybody looked embarrassed. I knew I’d done something wrong, but I didn’t know what it was. I learnt afterwards that in Indonesia you must never touch someone’s head, because it’s rude. Anyway, my hosts were really nice and I had an enjoyable evening. In fact, I saw them again earlier this year. Their son is a lot taller now and I can’t even touch his head.
O narrador desse comentário mostra-se impressionado com o fato de, na Indonésia,
Questão 60 192140IMEPAC 2° Semestre 2017
INSTRUCTIONS: This test comprises of five question based on the text below. Read the text carefully and then mark the alternatives that answer the questions or complete the sentences presented after it.
Psychologically informed physiotherapy for chronic pain: patient experiences of treatment and therapeutic process
S. Wilsonª, N. Chalonerª, M. Osbornª, b , J. Gauntlett-Gilbertª, b
Psychologically informed physiotherapy is used widely with patients with chronic pain. This study aimed to investigate patients’ beliefs about, and experiences of, this type of treatment, and helpful and unhelpful experiences.
Chronic pain is disabling, and difficult to treat both medically and surgically; as such, pain management treatments have increasingly emphasised self-management of the condition using physical and psychological techniques. Self-management approaches view disability and suffering as resulting from multiple factors beyond pain itself, including avoidant movement patterns, cognitions and coping styles.
There is increasing evidence that patients can benefit from physiotherapist-led cognitive behavioural self-management approaches for chronic pain. For example, STarT Back is a stratified care model for patients with low back pain (LBP), targeting patients at high risk of chronicity . The STarT Back model incorporates psychological concepts in both screening and treatment, and is now integrated into UK national pathways and guidance for LBP. Undergraduate physiotherapy courses also increasingly emphasise ‘biopsychosocial’ approaches to treatment. Thus, psychologically informed physiotherapy (PIP) is becoming prevalent across care settings.
The majority of outcome data suggest that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)-based treatments for chronic pain yield superior outcomes compared with ‘treatment as usual’ and waiting list controls. However, effect sizes are small and reduced at follow-up. Thus, whilst CBT approaches are useful, they need to be developed to have more impact. As such, this article will use the broader term ‘PIP’ to describe all treatments where physiotherapy is delivered within a psychological framework. PIP treatments aim to use psychological techniques to increase the impact of physiotherapy, and to entrench the patient’s long-term maintenance of exercise recommendations (e.g. by targeting low motivation or negative thinking patterns). Both CBT and other psychological models may be used in the service of these goals.
In order to develop a treatment, it is essential to understand how and why it works. Change process research has been common in the psychotherapy literature for the past 20 years. In the chronic pain literature, changes in variables such as pain catastrophising and acceptance have been identified as active influences on treatment outcome. However, there is little consensus on which treatment processes are most important, and the variables under inspection have generally been selected based on psychological theory, as opposed to arising from patient, or physiotherapy, accounts.
Where important therapeutic processes are understood, they can be targeted specifically to improve clinical outcomes and support efficient dissemination of effective practice. Physiotherapists do not always feel adequately trained to implement PIP despite recognising its value, and therapist ‘drift’ into ineffective clinical approaches is common across professions. Both of these factors indicate that more in-depth training is required. Identification of important treatment processes should support clinicians to target consistent, evidence-based variables.
Some studies have investigated patients’ overall experiences of self-management treatment. However, this study aimed to focus more specifically on those processes that are important within PIP treatments. Currently, minimal data exist on this topic; indeed, there are cautionary data indicating that both treatment adherence and perception of benefit can be poor in selfmanagement approaches for back pain. The authors chose to explore this topic in participants with severe chronic pain who had: (a) received a high ‘dose’ of PIP at a specialist service; and (b) shown evidence of benefiting from this treatment. This allowed their experiences to be explored with confidence in the adequacy and competence of the PIP treatment.
Available at: . Accessed on: April 2nd 2017.
In order to get at evidence-based variables, therapists SHOULD NOT
Questão 55 159829UFSM 2016
Scientific literacy is the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and
processes required for personal decision making, participation in civic and cultural
affairs, and economic productivity. It also includes specific types of abilities.
Scientific literacy means that a person can ask, find, or determine answers to
questions derived from curiosity about everyday experiences. It means that a person
has the ability to describe, explain, and predict natural phenomena. Scientific literacy
entails being able to read with understanding articles about science in the popular
press and to engage in social conversation about the validity of the conclusions.
Scientific literacy implies that a person can identify scientific issues underlying national
and local decisions and express positions that are scientifically and technologically
informed. A literate citizen should be able to evaluate the quality of scientific
information on the basis of its source and the methods used to generate it. Scientific
literacy also implies the capacity to pose and evaluate arguments based on evidence
and to apply conclusions from such arguments appropriately.
Fonte: Disponível em: <http://www.literacynet.org/science/scientificliteracy.html>. Acesso em: 16 set. 2016.
Assinale a alternativa que NÃO contempla uma habilidade da pessoa cientificamente letrada.
Questão 73 2636253FAMERP 2015
Leia os textos 1 e 2 para responder à questão.
Call to halve target for added sugar
People need to more than halve their intake of added sugar to tackle the obesity crisis, according to scientific advice for the government in England.
A report by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) says sugar added to food or naturally present in fruit juice and honey should account for 5% of energy intake. Many fail to meet the old 10% target. The sugar industry said “demonizing one ingredient” would not “solve the obesity epidemic”.
The body reviewed 600 scientific studies on the evidence of carbohydrates – including sugar – on health to develop the new recommendations. One 330ml can of soft drink would take a typical adult up to the proposed 5% daily allowance, without factoring in sugar from any other source.
Prof Ian MacDonald, chairman of the SACN working group on carbohydrates, said: “The evidence that we have analyzed shows quite clearly that high free sugars intake in adults is associated with increased energy intake and obesity. There is also an association between sugar-sweetened beverages and type-2 diabetes. In children there is clear demonstration that sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with obesity. By reducing it to 5% you would reduce the risk of all of those things, the challenge will be to get there.”
The target of 5% of energy intake from free sugars amounts to 25g for women (five to six teaspoons) and 35g (seven to eight teaspoons) for men, based on the average diet.
Public Health Minister for England, Jane Ellison, said: “We know eating too much sugar can have a significant impact on health, and this advice confirms that. We want to help people make healthier choices and get the nation into healthy habits for life. This report will inform the important debate taking place about sugar.”
Eating more fruits and veggies won’t make you lose weight
We’re often told to eat more fruits and vegetables, but the chances that you’ll lose weight just by eating more of these foods are slim. New research suggests increased fruit and vegetable intake is only effective for weight loss if you make an effort to reduce your calorie intake overall.
In other words, you need to exercise or consume fewer calories to shed those pounds.
Don’t let that stop you from including more fruits and veggies in your diet, though. Even if they don’t directly help you lose weight, these foods still provide a number of health benefits.
De acordo com o texto 2, a ingestão de frutas e vegetais
Questão 50 638147UP Medicina 2019/1
Leia o texto abaixo
The cost of vaccine hesitancy
Some medical professionals refer to this idea as “vaccine hesitancy”. The term can refer to a fear of a particular vaccine, or a concern that a baby’s immune system isn’t ready yet. Vaccine hesitancy might seem relatively harmless, but Dr. Georges Benjamin, executive director of the American Public Health Association, said it can have costly effects. When it comes to vaccination issues, sick children missing class and falling behind in school aren’t the only costs: “Somebody has to take care of that child when they’re home, so that may very well be a day of work for someone”, Benjamin noted, adding that there are also “health care costs if that child gets a complication from pertussis or measles or chickenpox”. In the case of measles, as was seen in the Disneyland outbreak, what starts out as a rash can lead to dangerous and expensive complications such as deafness, cardiovascular complications, induced pneumonia, and even death.
(Texto adaptado de: <https://www.voanews.com/a/how-a-single-shot-keeps-you-from-getting-sick/4531772.html>. Acesso em 19 ago. 2018.)
Com base no texto, considere as seguintes afirmativas:
1. O surto de varíola mencionado no texto provocou cegueira, entre outras mazelas.
2. O texto apresenta dois motivos relacionados ao receio de vacinar crianças.
3. Perder aula para tomar vacina prejudica o rendimento escolar das crianças.
4. Pais perderem dias de trabalho para cuidarem de filhos doentes onera as empresas.
Assinale a alternativa correta.
Questão 35 198229FAMEMA 2018
Drinking coffee could help you live longer
Coffee not only helps you feel full of beans, it might add years to your life as well, two major studies have shown. Scientists in Europe and the US have uncovered the clearest evidence yet that drinking coffee reduces the risk of death.
One study of more than half a million people from 10 European countries found that men who downed at least three cups of coffee a day were 18% less likely to die from any cause than non-coffee drinkers. Women drinking the same amount benefited less, but still experienced an 8% reduction in mortality over the period measured.
Similar results were reported by American scientists who conducted a separate investigation, recruiting 185855 participants from different ethnic backgrounds. Irrespective of ethnicity, people who drank two to three cups of coffee daily had an 18% reduced risk of death.
Each of the studies, both published in the journal Annals of Internal Medicine, showed no advantage from drinking either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Experts believe the antioxidant plant compounds in coffee rather than caffeine are responsible for the life-extending effect. Previous research has suggested that drinking coffee can reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes, liver disease, and some cancers.
Dr Marc Gunter, from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, who led the European study with colleagues from Imperial College London, said: “We found that higher coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk of death from any cause and specifically for circulatory diseases and digestive diseases. Importantly, these results were similar across all of the 10 European countries, with variable coffee drinking habits and customs. Our study also offers important insights into the possible mechanisms for the beneficial health effects of coffee.”
(www.huffingtonpost.co.uk, 11.07.2017. Adaptado.)
De acordo com o quinto parágrafo,