Questões de Inglês - Reading/Writing
Questão 31 6694503USCS 2022/1
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
The Amazon rainforest is now emitting more carbon dioxide than it is able to absorb, scientists have confirmed for the first time. The emissions amount to a billion tonnes of carbon dioxide a year, according to a study. The giant forest had previously been a carbon sink, absorbing the emissions driving the climate crisis, but is now causing its acceleration, researchers said.
Most of the emissions are caused by fires, many deliberately set to clear land for beef and soy production. But even without fires, hotter temperatures and droughts mean the south-eastern Amazon has become a source of CO2, rather than a sink.
Growing trees and plants have taken up about a quarter of all fossil fuel emissions since 1960, with the Amazon playing a major role as the largest tropical forest. Losing the Amazon’s power to capture CO2 is a stark warning that slashing emissions from fossil fuels is more urgent than ever, scientists said.
The research used small planes to measure CO2 levels up to 4,500 m above the forest over the last decade, showing how the whole Amazon is changing. Previous studies indicating the Amazon was becoming a source of CO2 were based on satellite data, which can be hampered by cloud cover, or ground measurements of trees, which can cover only a tiny part of the vast region.
The scientists said the discovery that part of the Amazon was emitting carbon even without fires was particularly worrying. They said it was most likely the result of each year’s deforestation and fires making adjacent forests more susceptible the next year. The trees produce much of the region’s rain, so fewer trees means more severe droughts and heatwaves and more tree deaths and fires.
(Damian Carrington. www.theguardian.com, 14.07.2021. Adaptado.)
The title that best summarizes the main ideia of the text is:
Questão 89 925819PUC-RS Verão 2019
INSTRUÇÃO: Responder à questão com base no texto.
Rip Van Winkle is a classic American short story written by Washington Irving based on local history _____ with influences from European folklore. It tells the story of a man who lived near the Catskill Mountains in New York before the Revolutionary War and fell asleep for twenty years. Everything he knew _____ in the town was gone. _____, he learned that he had to navigate this new world as a free citizen of the United States.
Adapted from: http://www.supersummary.com/rip-van-winkle/summary/ and https://www.bookreports.info/rip-van-winkle-summary/
The alternative that brings words that fill in the blanks in text, respectively, is
Questão 39 1675486Unit-SE Demais cursos 1° Dia 2019/1
When Sudan, the last northern white rhino bull, died
in March 2018, that left alive only two females of
the subspecies once common in Central and East
Africa.Both are descendants of Sudan and live in Kenya,
 and were considered infertile. But now, new hope is
emerging that extinction of the species can still be
prevented. Researchers have successfully created living
embryos in the laboratory from frozen sperm of the
northern white rhinoceros and egg cells from the southern
 white rhinoceros. It’s the most closely related
subspecies, with more than 20,000 southern rhinos living
in the wild.
Although such hybrid embryos are not pure northern
white rhinoceros, the researchers are optimistic. They
 plan to take egg cells from the still living northern
rhinoceros females in autumn of this year, and to fertilize
them with stored sperm from the same species.They
then intend to implant the oocytes into fertile southern
rhinoceros females in early 2019. This method is also
 used in human reproductive medicine.
Even if healthy rhinoceros calves can be
produced, whether the northern white rhino can be saved
in the long term remains unclear. As the sperm comes
from a few rhinoceros bulls, limited genetic diversity could
 endanger the health of a newly bred northern white rhino
population. Due to the smaller gene pool, such inbreeding
typically leads to higher rates of recessive disorders,
translating into higher death rates and poorer overall
 Still, the research unit is hoping that stem cell
technology can create more eggs and sperm from the
skin cells of 12 northern whites, increasing the supply
and genetic variety. If the scientists pull it off, they’ll
both rescue a seemingly doomed animal and provide a
 blueprint for protecting other animals teetering on the
edge of oblivion.
WHEN SUDAN...Disponível em: https://www.dw.com/en/researcherscreate-hybrid-northern-white-rhino-embryos/a-44527410. Acesso em: 1 nov. 2018. Adaptado.
The central idea of this text is summarized in:
Questão 42 80245FMABC 2012
New stem cell method makes functioning liver cells
Oct 12, 2011
By Kate Kelland
LONDON (Reuters) - British scientists have developed a new stem cell technique for growing working liver cells which could eventually avoid the need for costly and risky liver transplants. A team of researchers led by the Sanger Institute and the University of Cambridge used cuttingedge methods to correct a genetic mutation in stem cells derived from a patient's skin biopsy, and then grew them into fresh liver cells.
By putting the new liver cells into mice, they showed they were fully functioning. "We have developed new systems to target genes and correct defects in patient cells," said Allan Bradley, director of the Sanger Institute. At a briefing about the work, Bradley said the technique the first success of its kind leaves behind no trace of the genetic manipulation, except for the gene correction. "These are early steps, but if this technology can be taken into treatment, it will offer great possible benefits for patients," he added.
Stem cells are the body's master cells, the source for all other cells. Scientists say they could transform medicine, providing treatments for blindness, spinal cord and other severe injuries, and new cells for damaged organs. Research is focused on two main forms embryonic stem cells, which are harvested from embryos, and reprogrammed cells, also known as induced pluripotent stem cells or iPS cells, which are reprogrammed from ordinary skin or blood cells.
When they were first discovered in 2006, iPS cells looked like a perfect solution to the ethical debate over the use of embryonic stem cells because they are made in a lab from ordinary skin or blood cells. Embryonic stem cells are usually harvested from leftover embryos at fertility clinics and their use is opposed by many religious groups.
But in recent years, concerns have been raised that iPS cells may not be as "clean" or as capable as embryonic cells. Last year, a group led by Robert Lanza, of the U.S. firm Advanced Cell Technology, compared batches of iPS cells with embryonic stem cells and noticed the iPS cells died more quickly and were much less able to grow and expand.
Questão 39 1356270AFA 2012
Directions: Read the text and answer question
Murderesses Velma Kelly (a woman who killed her husband and sister after finding them in bed together) and Roxie Hart (who killed her boyfriend when she discovered he wasn't going to make her a star) find themselves on death row together and fight for the fame that will keep them from the gallows, in 1920s musical Chicago.
Adapted from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0299658/plotsummary
Mark the most appropriate option.
According to the plot summary, the musical Chicago shows
Questão 40 81291UNITAU Medicina 2010