Questões de Inglês - Reading/Writing
Questão 2 6012712UNICAMP 1° Fase 2022
Em artigo publicado em 14 de junho de 2020, o jornal The Straits Times, de Singapura, apresentou os resultados de uma pesquisa sobre a percepção dos respondentes a respeito das profissões mais essenciais durante a pandemia. A imagem a seguir revela algumas estatísticas obtidas com base nessas respostas.
Em um post em sua rede social, o comediante Rishi Budhrani comentou esses resultados:
Pode-se dizer que Budhrani
Questão 44 4017137FMJ 2020
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
Internet celebrities in Asia: from behind the screens
As darkness falls over Taipei City, an image of a woman illuminates the night sky. She’s one of Taiwan’s most famous live streamers, a niche group of celebrities who earn their fame through front-facing video cameras. Her face beams from a 100-foot-tall billboard overlooking Taipei. Across Asia, countless other live streamers joke, eat, and sleep while being watched by thousands on smart phones and computer screens. The most successful among them can make fortunes enough to buy their own islands.
After a long day’s work, Junji Chen treasures time spent gazing into the eyes of his personal favorite, Yutong. Having moved away from his village to work in Taipei, the 42-year-old has little social life. Most of his relationships are with Facebook friends, many of whom he has never met in person — and with live streamers.
Yutong cannot see Chen or hear his voice but, to him, their connection feels raw, real, maybe even reciprocated. In the comment’s section, he can flatter her with compliments or send her money in the form of virtual stickers. One sticker can cost thousands of dollars, a steep price for a factory worker. But for lonely viewers like Junji, who spends a third of his salary on virtual stickers, the companionship is worth it.
A streamer’s job can cause physical and mental harm. Peak hours are late at night, meaning irregular sleep schedules and fatigue. Some become isolated from friends and family or grow depressed. In Korea, live streamers who eat large quantities of food in front of the camera — known as Mukbang — are prone to obesity. Because a live streamer’s success depends on their digital popularity, they may continue unhealthy behaviors to please their fans. Once intimacy is lost, so is their source of income — even though, financially, few can live off the industry alone.
Live streaming fans can manifest “parasocial relationships,” one-sided friendships that appear reciprocated, with their favorite live streamers. For a person who lacks social skills, parasocial relationships can create the illusion of companionship when, in reality, the other person offers them little or nothing in return.
Fans believe that they are truly cared for, says Jerome Gence, who photographed live streamers and their fans throughout Asia, but “in the end, [the live streamer] just takes the money and the fan ends up even more lonely than before.” Still, he adds, some fans still say the videos help cultivate friendship, or even love. “Some fans say to us, ‘I follow the live streamer because they are the only one who knows my name.’”
(Claire Wolters. www.nationalgeographic.com. 31.07.2019. Adaptado.)
Na última frase do segundo parágrafo, a expressão “Most of his relationships” equivale, em português, a:
Questão 11 605773FAMERP 2019
Leia o texto para responder à questão.
There is nothing conventional about 17-year-old Michael Fuller’s relationship with music. As someone with high-functioning autism who sees the world through sound, creating melodies from the bustle of the high street or trains on the tracks feels more natural than any social interaction. This hardwired connection to sound has been with him for as long as he can remember.
By the age of 11, Michael could play Mozart by ear, having taught himself to play the piano through a mobile phone app. The app highlighted notes on a keyboard as classical music played. He describes his unusual musical talent as “downloading” music into his head. His mother, Nadine, remembers that as a child Michael would “suddenly pop up and say: ‘I’ve got a symphony’”. Michael took to the piano and found he could quickly perform complex pieces from memory.
“I liked what I was hearing, sought more music and began studying through Google and YouTube,” he remembers. “It was very organic. I would listen in great depth and the music would be implanted in my mind. I could then just play it on the piano – all without being taught.”
Growing up in a family that listened to reggae over classical music, Michael feels “very much aware” of how different his approach is to music – symbolised by the way he taught himself piano as a child. This, his mother says, came as a “surprise to the family and myself – I’d never listened to classical music in my life”.
It was not long after learning to play the piano that Michael started composing his own works. Describing this process as “making music with my mind”, Michael says composing classical symphonies “helps me to express myself through music – it makes me calm”. Michael wants to nurture his song writing to achieve his ambition of becoming a modern mainstream classical artist. He wants to control the creative process, unlike typical modern-day composers, who he says “write blobs on a page, hand it over to the musicians – then say bye-bye and stay in the background and get no recognition”. Instead, Michael is determined to take centre stage.
(Alex Taylor. www.bbc.com, 27.03.2018. Adaptado.)
The text is mainly about
Questão 24 984924UERJ 2019/2
Ticking away the moments that make up a dull day
You fritter and waste the hours in an offhand way
Kicking around on a piece of ground in your home town
Waiting for someone or something to show you the way
 Tired of lying in the sunshine
Staying home to watch the rain
You are young and life is long
And there is time to kill today
And then one day you find
 Ten years have got behind you
No one told you when to run
You missed the starting gun
And you run and you run to catch up with the sun, but it’s sinking
And racing around to come up behind you again
 The sun is the same in a relative way, but you’re older
Shorter of breath and one day closer to death
Every year is getting shorter
Never seem to find the time
Plans that either come to naught
 Or half a page of scribbled lines
Hanging on in quiet desperation is the English way
The time has gone, the song is over
Thought I’d something more to say
Home, home again
 I like to be here when I can
And when I come home cold and tired
It’s good to warm my bones beside the fire
Far away, across the field
The tolling of the iron bell
 Calls the faithful to their knees
To hear the softly spoken magic spells
The song “Time” could be used to introduce the class “O tempo em nossas vidas” suggested in the text “Física para poetas”.
The fragment of the lyrics that best relates to the class is:
Questão 3 1344042UNCISAL 2° Dia 2019
Most of us don’t enjoy having difficult conversations. When we have a difficult conversation with someone from a different culture, however, our task becomes harder.
Getting down to business vs. relationship building: In some countries like the U.S., people view conversations as an opportunity to exchange information. Participants expect each other to get down to business fairly quickly. However, in countries such as Mexico, conversations are first and foremost an opportunity to enhance the relationship.
Direct vs. indirect communication: In countries like Germany, it is a sign of respect and professionalism to speak clearly and leave no room for misinterpretation. By contrast, in countries like Japan, people prefer to communicate indirectly, especially when it comes to a sensitive topic.
Low vs. high context: In countries like Canada, the message of a conversation is primarily contained within the exact words that are spoken. In other countries, like South Korea, they read between the lines in the words that are spoken and pay very close attention to the emotional side of the message.
Informality vs. formality: In some countries, such as Australia, where people are generally casual and laid back, they might interpret an overtly formal setting as a sign that the situation was worse than they’d thought. Yet in other countries, like Poland, meeting in a formal office with some observance of protocol would be expected.
Disponível em: https://hbr.org. Acesso em: 9 nov. 2018 (adaptado).
A função primordial do texto anterior é
Questão 74 1358468UECE 1° Fase 2019/2
T E X T
How a Canadian Chain Is Reinventing Book Selling
By Alexandra Alter
About a decade ago, Heather Reisman, the chief executive of Canada’s largest bookstore chain, was having tea with the novelist Margaret Atwood when Ms. Atwood inadvertently gave her an idea for a new product. Ms. Atwood announced that she planned to go home, put on a pair of cozy socks and curl up with a book. Ms. Reisman thought about how appealing that sounded. Not long after, her company, Indigo, developed its own brand of plush “reading socks.” They quickly became one of Indigo’s signature gift items.
“Last year, all my friends got reading socks,” said Arianna Huffington, the HuffPost cofounder and a friend of Ms. Reisman’s, who also gave the socks as gifts to employees at her organization Thrive. “Most people don’t have reading socks — not like Heather’s reading socks.”
Over the last few years, Indigo has designed dozens of other products, including beach mats, scented candles, inspirational wall art, Mason jars, crystal pillars, bento lunchboxes, herb growing kits, copper cheese knife sets, stemless champagne flutes, throw pillows and scarves.
It may seem strange for a bookstore chain to be developing and selling artisanal soup bowls and organic cotton baby onesies. But Indigo’s approach seems not only novel but crucial to its success and longevity. The superstore concept, with hulking retail spaces stocking 100,000 titles, has become increasingly hard to sustain in the era of online retail, when it’s impossible to match Amazon’s vast selection.
Indigo is experimenting with a new model, positioning itself as a “cultural department store” where customers who wander in to browse through books often end up lingering as they impulsively shop for cashmere slippers and crystal facial rollers, or a knife set to go with a new Paleo cookbook. Over the past few years, Ms. Reisman has reinvented Indigo as a Goop-like, curated lifestyle brand, with sections devoted to food, health and wellness, and home décor.
Ms. Reisman is now importing Indigo’s approach to the United States. Last year, Indigo opened its first American outpost, at a luxury mall in Millburn, N.J., and she eventually plans to open a cluster of Indigos in the Northeast. Indigo’s ascendance is all the more notable given the challenges that big bookstore chains have faced in the United States. Borders, which once had more than 650 locations, filed for bankruptcy in 2011. Barnes & Noble now operates 627 stores, down from 720 in 2010, and the company put itself up for sale last year. Lately, it has been opening smaller stores, including an 8,300-square-foot outlet in Fairfax County, Va.
“Cross-merchandising is Retail 101, and it’s hard to do in a typical bookstore,” said Peter Hildick-Smith, president of the Codex Group, which analyzes the book industry. “Indigo found a way to create an extra aura around the bookbuying experience, by creating a physical extension of what you’re reading about.”
The atmosphere is unabashedly intimate, cozy and feminine — an aesthetic choice that also makes commercial sense, given that women account for some 60 percent of book buyers. A section called “The Joy of the Table” stocks Indigobrand ceramics, glassware and acacia wood serving platters with the cookbooks. The home décor section has pillows and throws, woven baskets, vases and scented candles. There’s a subsection called “In Her Words,” which features idea-driven books and memoirs by women. An area labeled “A Room of Her Own” looks like a lush dressing room, with vegan leather purses, soft gray shawls, a velvet chair, scarves and journals alongside art, design and fashion books.
Books still account for just over 50 percent of Indigo’s sales and remain the central draw; the New Jersey store stocks around 55,000 titles. But they also serve another purpose: providing a window into consumers’ interests, hobbies, desires and anxieties, which makes it easier to develop and sell related products.
Publishing executives, who have watched with growing alarm as Barnes & Noble has struggled, have responded enthusiastically to Ms. Reisman’s strategy. “Heather pioneered and perfected the art of integrating books and nonbook products,” Markus Dohle, the chief executive of Penguin Random House, said in an email.
Ms. Reisman has made herself and her own tastes and interests central to the brand. The front of the New Jersey store features a section labeled “Heather’s Picks,” with a display table covered with dozens of titles. A sign identifies her as the chain’s “founder, C.E.O., Chief Booklover and the Heather in Heather’s Picks.” She appears regularly at author signings and store events, and has interviewed prominent authors like Malcolm Gladwell, James Comey, Sally Field, Bill Clinton and Nora Ephron.
When Ms. Reisman opened the first Indigo store in Burlington, Ontario, in 1997, she had already run her own consulting firm and later served as president of a soft drink and beverage company, Cott. Still, bookselling is an idiosyncratic industry, and many questioned whether Indigo could compete with Canada’s biggest bookseller, Chapters. Skepticism dissolved a few years later when Indigo merged with Chapters, inheriting its fleet of national stores. The company now has more than 200 outlets across Canada, including 89 “superstores.” Indigo opened its first revamped concept store in 2016.
The new approach has proved lucrative: In its 2017 fiscal year, the company’s revenue exceeded $1 billion Canadian for the first time. In its 2018 fiscal year, Indigo reported a revenue increase of nearly $60 million Canadian over the previous year, making it the most profitable year in the chain’s history.
The company’s dominance in Canada doesn’t guarantee it will thrive in the United States, where it has to compete not only with Amazon and Barnes & Noble, but with a resurgent wave of independent booksellers. After years of decline, independent stores have rebounded, with some 2,470 locations, up from 1,651 a decade ago, according to the American Booksellers Association. And Amazon has expanded into the physical retail market, with around 20 bookstores across the United States.
Ms. Reisman acknowledges that the company faces challenges as it expands southward. Still, she’s optimistic, and is already scouting locations for a second store near New York.
The successful selling of a variety of products by Indigo bookstores started with