Questões de Inglês - Listening/Speaking
Questão 59 279512UNIFOR Medicina 2017/2
Leia a entrevista com Dermot Kincaid e relacione as perguntas abaixo com as respostas de cada parágrafo:
a. What is a normal day like?
b. What’s your favorite task?
c. Is your work the same every day?
d. Can you talk about your responsibilities?
Age: 21 Job: Secretary Nationality: Irish
I am in charge of the day-to-day running of the office. I am responsible for keeping my boss’s appointment diary up to date. I answer the phone and deal with enquiries from our customers.
In the morning I open, sort, and distribute the mail. During the day I type letters and answer the phone. I also send and receive emails and faxes. I take care of the filing and I keep records of expenditure such as travel or purchases. At the end of the day I prepare the outgoing mail.
Not really. We get a lot of visitors and I enjoy meeting new people. I go and meet them at reception, tell them about the company, and look after them.
I really like arranging business trips for my colleagues. I enjoy finding the flights, booking the hotels, and getting information about the places.
A correspondência correta entre pergunta e resposta é:
Questão 4 1259077FGV-SP Economia - 1ºFase - LEI/FIS/QUI/LPO - BLOCO 02 2019
Read the text in order to answer question.
How to fix inequality
In an age of widening inequality, the Stanford professor Walter Scheidel believes he has cracked the code on how to overcome it in his book “The Great Leveler”. The Economist’s Open Future initiative asked Mr Scheidel to reply to a number of questions.
1. The Economist: Is society incapable of tackling income inequality peacefully?
Walter Scheidel: No, but history shows that there are limits. There is a big difference between maintaining existing arrangements that successfully check inequality — Scandinavia is a good example — and significantly reducing it. The latter requires real change and that is always much harder to do: think of America or Britain, not to mention Brazil, China or India. The modern welfare state does a reasonably good job of compensating for inequality before taxes and transfers. However, for more substantial levelling to occur, the established order needs to be shaken up: the greater the shock to the system, the easier it becomes to reduce privilege at the top.
2. The Economist: Are we really living in an implacable period of wealth inequality — or was the relatively equal society that followed the Second World War the real aberration?
Walter Scheidel: When we view history over the long run, we can see that this experience was certainly a novelty. We now know that modernisation as such does not reliably reduce inequality. Many things had to come together to make this happen, such as very high income and estate taxes, strong labour unions, and intrusive regulations and controls. Since the 1980s, liberalisation and globalisation have allowed inequality to rise again. Even so, wealth concentration in Europe is nowhere near as high as it was a century ago. Like Europe, America, meanwhile, is getting there — which shows that it all depends on where you look.
3. The Economist: How do artificial intelligence and automation fit in to your thinking? Will they be a calamity for employment and thus for equality? Or might they unleash extraordinary productivity and improvements in living standards that actually narrow inequality?
Walter Scheidel: Ideally, we would like education to keep up with technological change to make sure workers have the skills they need to face this challenge. But in practice, there will always be losers, and even basic-income schemes can take us only so far. At the end of the day, someone owns the robots. As long as the capitalist world system is in place, it is hard to see how even huge productivity gains from greater automation would benefit society evenly instead of funnelling even more income and wealth to those who are in the best position to pocket these gains.
(The Economist. http://bit.do/eysic. Adaptado)
According to Walter Scheidel’s answer to the first question, in order to reduce inequality substantially, there should be
Questão 21 301655UNIVESP 2018
Modern-day slavery: an explainer
Photograph: Mario Tama/Getty
What is modern-day slavery?
About 150 years after most countries banned slavery – Brazil was the last to abolish its participation in the transatlantic slave trade, in 1888 – millions of men, women and children are still enslaved. Contemporary slavery takes many forms, from women forced into prostitution, to child slavery in agriculture supply chains or whole families working for nothing to pay off generational debts. Slavery thrives on every continent and in almost every country. Forced labour, people trafficking, debt bondage and child marriage are all forms of modern-day slavery that affect the world’s most vulnerable people.
How is slavery defined?
Slavery is prohibited under the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: “No one shall be held in slavery or servitude: slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.”
Definitions of modern-day slavery are mainly taken from the 1956 UN supplementary convention, which says: “debt bondage, serfdom, forced marriage and the delivery of a child for the exploitation of that child are all slavery-like practices and require criminalisation and abolishment”. The 1930 Forced Labour Convention defines forced labour as “all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily”. As contemporary systems of slavery have evolved, new definitions, including trafficking and distinguishing child slavery from child labour, have developed.
How many people are enslaved across the world?
Due to its illegality, data on modern-day slavery is difficult to collate. The UN’s International Labour Organisation (ILO) estimates that about 21 million people are in forced labour at any point in time. The ILO says this estimate includes trafficking and other forms of modern slavery. The only exceptions are trafficking for organ removal, forced marriage and adoption, unless the last two practices result in forced labour. The ILO calculates that 90% of the 21 million are exploited by individuals or companies, while 10% are forced to work by the state, rebel military groups, or in prisons under conditions that violate ILO standards. Sexual exploitation accounts for 22% of slaves.
(www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/apr/03/ modern-day-slavery-explainer. Adaptado)
No trecho do quarto parágrafo – unless the last two practices result in forced labour – o termo em destaque indica ideia de
Questão 27 180876FATEC 2017/2
Susan Calvin had been born in the year 1982, they said, which made her seventy five now. Everyone knew that. Appropriately enough, U. S. Robot and Mechanical Men, Inc. was seventy-five also, since it had been in the year of Dr. Calvin’s birth that Lawrence Robertson had first taken out incorporation papers for what eventually became the strangest industrial giant in man’s history. Well, everyone knew that, too. (…)
She went back to her desk and sat down. She didn’t need expression on her face to look sad, somehow.
“How old are you?” she wanted to know.
“Thirty-two,” I said.
“Then you don’t remember a world without robots.
There was a time when humanity faced the universe alone and without a friend. Now he has creatures to help him; stronger creatures than himself, more faithful, more useful, and absolutely devoted to him. Mankind is no longer alone. Have you ever thought of it that way?”
“I’m afraid I haven’t. May I quote you?”
“You may. To you, a robot is a robot. Gears and metal; electricity and positrons. Mind and iron! Human-made! If necessary, human-destroyed! But you haven’t worked with them, so you don’t know them. They’re a cleaner, better breed than we are.”
(ASIMOV, I. I, Robot. Greenwich, Conn: Fawcett Publications,1950. p. 2-3.)
Comparando o “mundo sem robôs” com o estágio da história da humanidade em que a entrevista é concedida, o texto afirma que
Questão 30 142008UPE 3° Fase / 1° Dia SSA 2015
What Daniel Kish does, astonishingly, elegantly, makes you wonder how much untapped potential lies within the human body. Kish was born with retinal cancer, and to save his life, both eyes were removed by the time he was 13 months old. He soon started making a clicking noise with his tongue. It seemed to help him get around. Now 47, he navigates primarily using echolocation. Yes, like a bat. He’s so good, he can ride a bicycle in traffic. His group, World Access for the Blind, teaches others the art of the click.
He was interviewed by Michael Finkel.
How does echolocation work?
Sound waves are produced by every tongue click. These waves bounce off surfaces all around and return to my ears as faint echoes. My brain processes the echoes into dynamic images. It’s like having a conversation with the environment.
What do you see in your mind’s eye as you click?
Each click is like a dim camera flash. I construct a three-dimensional image of my surroundings for hundreds of feet in every direction. Up close, I can detect a pole an inch thick. At 15 feet, I recognize cars and bushes. Houses come into focus at 150 feet. But you still use a long white cane. I have difficulty in detecting small items at low level or places where the ground drops off.
What is it like riding a bike using echolocation?
It’s thrilling but requires very focused and sustained concentration on the acoustics of the environment. I click as much as twice per second, way more than I usually do.
Is it dangerous to explore the world this way?
Much of the world lives in fear of threats to life and limb that are largely imagined. Despite my insatiable habit of climbing anything and everything, I never broke a bone as a kid.
How challenging is it to teach other blind people echolocation?
World Access has taught nearly a thousand blind students in over 30 countries. Many students are surprised how quickly results come. I believe echolocation capacity is latent within us – early man may have used it when artificial lighting was nonexistent. The neural hardware seems to be there; I’ve developed ways to activate it. Vision isn’t in the eyes; it’s in the mind. Our students say they’ve discovered a freedom they never imagined.
(In: The New Age of Exploration. National Geographic, vol. 224, p. 105. July, 2013. Adaptado.)
De acordo com o texto, Daniel Kish
I. é um homem com poderes sobrenaturais, pois, mesmo sem enxergar, consegue locomover-se com rapidez surpreendente, além de praticar alguns esportes com desenvoltura, tendo já obtido premiações importantes.
II. mesmo tendo perdido a visão muito cedo, conseguiu desenvolver uma maneira surpreendente de deslocar-se sozinho, orientando-se a partir de ondas sonoras produzidas por estalidos feitos com a própria língua.
III. usa uma técnica para deslocar-se cujos resultados são surpreendentes, o que vem gerando interesse por parte de pesquisadores de vários países, pois há evidência de que os humanos têm potenciais ainda não explorados.
IV. conseguiu avanços tão importantes com sua técnica que hoje há muitos outros beneficiados e explica que os resultados chegam rapidamente, conforme tem ouvido de estudantes que estão sendo ensinados a usá-la.
V. é conhecido como Bat Man, pois tem hábitos noturnos estranhos e orienta-se muito mais pelo som que pela visão e tato, sendo, por isso, algumas vezes confundido com uma pessoa de maus costumes.
Estão CORRETAS, apenas, as afirmativas
Questão 34 142481UPE 3° Fase / 1° Dia SSA 2014
After 18 years covering conflict in Rwanda, Afghanistan, and Iraq, photojournalist David Guttenfelder was unsure if he had the skills for a delicate new assignment: documenting the trapping and eating of songbirds. But he soon found himself on a familiar ground, enmeshed in story with carnage and tension. He had an awakening as well. In Ayia Napa, Cyprus, he met a man who’d illegally caged a dozen wild birds. Guttenfelder thought: “This isn’t how birds are supposed to be.” In this case the authorities came in and freed the birds. […]
He was interviewed by Daniel Stone.
DS: Taking pictures of birds isn’t your usual line of work, is it?
DG: After so much time covering war, I remember some of my friends in Syria and Libya said to me, “You’re out there covering birds?” I’ve spent a long time photographing people doing horrible things to each other, but seeing hundreds of birds suffering was a very challenging p roject. It made me realize there are other types of conflicts that need to be covered.
D S: How did people justify killing birds?
DG: In Cyprus, when I listened to activists argue with local people, the Cypriots would say that the birds are delicious. One man told me, “Imagine the best thing your mother made for y ou as a kid, then multiply it a thousand. That’s how delicious they are.”
D S: Did you eat any of the birds?
DG: I did. As I learned from war photography, you sometimes need to hang around with people who do things you don’t agree with to photograph things you want show. After spending an entire day with a family in Egypt that hunted songbirds, they invited me to eat with them. I probably ate three or four birds. It wasn’t for me.
(In: The moment. David Guttenfelder: behind the lens. National Geographic, USA, July 2013. Adaptado.)
As últimas sentenças do texto “I probably ate three or four birds. It wasn’t for me.” poderiam ser ditas num só período, com acréscimo de um conectivo (linking word), sem comprometer o sentido do que foi dito.
Assinale a alternativa que apresenta esse período CORRETAMENTE.